fourth

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Bachman (1996) stated that the most important quality in order to design and develop a language test is its usefulness. The author explains usefulness is the combination of different qualities that a test must have, this characteristics are test reliability, construct validity, authenticity, interactiveness, impact and practicality. The authors perpend three principles as a guideline needed in the creation of tests. The first principle establishes that the overall usefulness of the test must be maximized; this means that the real usefulness of a test as a whole is more important than any other individual quality. The second principle explains that what it has to be evaluated is the effect of the qualities combined, qualities cannot be evaluated individually. Finally Bachman (1996) says that the third principle to be considered is that qualities must be evaluated for its specific testing context, the appropriate balance cannot be assessed in general. Following up, Bachman (1996) takes into account six qualities considered essential a test development. The first of them is Reliability; this term is defined as consistency of measurement. A test score might be consistent amid different parameters of testing contexts. In conclusion Reliability can be seen as a function of consistency of scores from one group of test tasks to another. The second quality settled by Bachman (1996) is called Construct validity. This term points out to the meaningfulness and appropriateness of the interpretations made based on test scores. The score becomes the indicator of specific abilities of the language because it provides real evidence about what has been learned. The third quality mentioned by Bachman (1996) is Authenticity, and it is explained as... ... middle of paper ... ...d, the author also says that a good test should not be expensive or time consuming and should not be difficult to handle. The next principle stated by Brown (2004) is Reliability. As the author claims a reliable test is consistent and dependable. This means that a test should show similar results even if it’s taken or given in different moments. Finally, the last principle explained by Brown (2004) is Validity. A test is valid if its measure what is meant to measure. Another aspect included in the validity of a test is the capacity to evaluate how well the learners have learnt the course contents. Validity can be divided in three more terms and as it is mentioned previously by the other authors those grades are Content validity, Face validity and Construct validity. In this case Brown (2004) and Coombe (2007) give similar definitions to the three grades of validity.

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