Copper has an atomic number of 29, so it has 29 protons and 29 electrons. Looking at the periodic table, there is a second number assigned to every element: the mass number. The mass number of an element is the number of protons the element has plus the number of neutrons the element has. Copper has a mass number of 63.55. Rounding up, this means that the number of neutrons copper has is 64 (mass number) minus 29 (protons), so it has 35 neutrons.
Electrons bound to atoms hold a percentage of stable energy levels, otherwise known as orbitals, which undergo transitory processes through absorbing or omitting photons with equal energy levels. Electrons determine an element's chemical properties, thus influencing an atom's magnetic properties. Subatomic particles, a scientific term for electrons, protons, and neutrons, are the individual atomic components that determine classification of certain molecules. Electrons have a negative electrical charge too small for modern techniques to measure. Protons have positive charge with a mass far greater than the electron.
Isotopes occur in different abundances. For the element of copper, there are 29 isotopes, only two of which are stable and not radioactive: 63Cu and 65Cu with abundances 69.15% and 30.85%, respectively. Every element has a distinct make up due to the electron configuration, the number of protons (and thus electrons), the isotopes existing in nature, and many more factors. It is this innate uniqueness of elements that makes up almost every corner of the earth.
Orbits describe the chemical properties of dissimilar atoms (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). All electron orbits have a quantum number n and orbits with the same value of n make up a shell (Encyclopedia Britannica. 2011). Hydrogen, lithium, and sodium have like properties with one electron in the outermost shell (Encyclopedia Britannica.
If all of the energy levels in the atom are full populated with electrons, it is said to be stable, and in most cases, is therefore unreactive. Examples of this include the noble (or inert) gases such as neon or argon. However if the outer energy level of the atom is not stable, it will automatically try to either gain or lose electrons to become stable. This is achieved by an ionic reaction. Ionic bonding occurs when the outer atoms of on material changes orbit and joins another material for example: Sodium chloride As you can see, sodium is a group one metal (it has one electron on its outer energy level) so is therefore unstable.
Electrons : Electrons are negatively charged particles with a mass of 1/1846th of an atomic mass unit. They are arranged in shells around the central nucleus. Useful definitions for atomic structure : Atomic number (Z) : The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom but is also equal to the number of electrons in the same atom (because atoms don't carry an overall charge - the positives balance the negatives!). Mass Number, (A) (or atomic mass) : The number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of one atom of the element The atomic number and mass number of a particular element can be found from the periodic table. The atomic number is always displayed to the bottom left of the symbol for the element.
The other known charged leptons are the muon and the tau. These three particles differ only in mass; they have the same spin, charge, strong interactions, and weak interactions. In a weak interaction a charged lepton is either unchanged or changed into and uncharged lepton, that is a neutri no. In the latter case, each charged lepton is seen to change only into the corresponding neutrino. The electron has magnetic properties by virtue of (1) its orbital motion about the nucleus of its parent atom and (2) its rotation about its own axis.
Neutrons have a neutral charge, and they, along with protons, are the majority of mass in an atom. Electron mass, though, is negligible. When an atom has a neutral charge, it is stable. Isotopes refer to 1 of 2 or more atoms with the same atomic number but different numbers of neutrons. The atom copper has two stable isotopes.
Protons always have negative charges. Then finally the neutron is a neutral charge or a charge of zero. If the charge of the whole atom it zero that means there are an equal number of positive and negative pieces. An electron can be found anywhere around the nucleus, and the protons and neutrons are in the nucleus. You can not pin point were the electrons are but the area that it can be in is called a shell.
Therefore, there must be the same number of electrons as protons. In the case of copper, there are 29 electrons. However, to account for the fact that they are isotopes, they have different numbers of neutrons. Protons have a relative mass (on the carbon-12 scale) of about one, and electrons 1/1836 (almost no mass). Neutrons, with a mass also of about one, account for the difference in masses of different isotopes (“Electron Structure Discussion”).