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Factors of Community: 1. Interactions between the climate and topography a. “Rainfall, soil, temperature” 2. The food and resources that grow 3. Other specific resources necessary for a species to survive and adapt to. (Ecological niche) 4. Species interaction 5. Physical disturbances, addition/removal of certain species -These factors determine population sizes of an ecosystem. -Conditions of arctic regions don’t allow many animals to live there due to the low temperature. Niches: (all relationships in which species engage in order to survive and reproduce) -Fundamental Niche is a theoretical niche, where there are no constraints or limited resources) -Realized Niche is the actual niche, where there are constraints on resources) Symbiosis: (“living together” Species interacting in +, -, and = ways) Mutualism (++) -Both species in interaction benefit -Obligatory Mutualism -One species cannot grow/reproduce without another species EX. Yucca plants are only pollinated by Yucca moths. -Yucca moths only grow in the yucca plant and only eat Yucca seeds. Co-evolution -The prey and predator build better defenses and counters to the other’s abilities. -Since the best of the prey/predator survive more often, they have more chance to reproduce. -Soon only the strong survive, thus, the best ways of countering reach the entire population. -EX. Camouflage, Mimicry (faking a characteristic), Spewing toxins, showing teeth, etc Carrying Capacity -Maximum number of individuals that resources of environment can maintain. -Predator-Prey populations can fluctuate. -Predators may not adjust quickly enough to the abundance of prey. -Additional predators could also influence the rate. -As more predators reproduce and eat more prey, the prey population decreases. -As more prey dies, predators have less to eat and begin to die off. -With fewer predators, the prey once again starts to reproduce at a faster pace. Predator- Animals that feed on living organisms, but do not live on them Prey- targets of predators that are killed Parasites- Feeds on tissues of living organisms and live on them Host- the organism a parasite feeds on Effects of Parasites -Feeds off the host’s tissue’s nutrition. -Alters how much energy enters the organism, and weakens it. -Can alter birth rates, can sterilize, or make organisms less attractive to mates. -Can open prey to diseases and infections. -Usually does not want to cause death, so that it can reproduce for a longer period of time Microparasites -Rapid reproducers and personally infect the body. EX. Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoan Macroparasites -Directly lay their eggs on the host. EX. Fleas, ticks, mites, lice Social Parasites -Manipulate the social behavior of another species. EX. Cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of other species, which push the rightful eggs out. -The mother of the original eggs ends up feeding the cuckoos. Parasitoids -Insect larvae that always kill what they eat (larvae and pupae of other insects)

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