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Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of an organism’s genome using biotechnology. The method used in genetic engineering involves either adding a host genome or removing a gene using method known as nuclease. Pioneers such as Darwin and Mendel’s early work suggested that a form of some sort was passed onto the next generation. The information that they concluded to was pre-genetics and was not as advanced as it today.
It wasn’t until 1972 when Paul Berg utilised enzymes and DNA to create the first recombinant DNA molecule. The combination of monkey virus SV40 and lamba virus was used to create the first recombinant DNA. A year later in 1973 Rudolf Jaenisch created a transgenic mouse. Jaenisch was able to do this by introducing foreign DNA into its embryo. This process created the first transgenic animal. Jaenisch went onto inject SV40 into mice embryos from this Jaenisch expected tumours to develop on the mice, but instead the mice appeared normal. Jaenisch used radioactive probes and discovered the virus he had planted into the mice had integrated into the mice’s genome. Jaenisch further discovered that the mice didn’t not pass this trait onto its offspring.
Due to the advancements made in the early 1970s in genetic engineering it led to concern within the scientific community, about potential risks. A meeting was organised by Paul Berg in 1975 known as the Asilomar conference. At this conference guidelines were set out and biological barriers were limited the spread of recombinant DNA.
In 1981, Frank Constantine, Frank Ruddle and Elizabeth Lacey used a technique pioneered by Ralph Brinster in the 1970s. The three scientists injected purified DNA into the cell of a mouse embryo. They observed that it showed transmi...

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...ked if they agree with genetic engineering to alter baby’s characteristics including sex, hair or eye colour. Out of the 200 participants 30% agreed that genetic engineering could be used. Whilst 68% disagreed with using genetic engineering to alter characteristics of a baby. Whilst the other 2% remained unsure. The participants were then asked if a child had an increase chance of developing a genetic disease should genetic engineering being used in these circumstances. 96% of participants agreed that genetic engineering should be used in these circumstances. Whilst the other 4% disagreed with using genetic engineering in these circumstances. Yates concluded that people perception on genetic engineering seems to be shifting towards agreeing that genetic engineering is acceptable in the United States of America since it became legal to choose the sex of the baby.
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