Berkley thought that arming the Jamestown rubble was too dangerous to be allowed. After Bacons death the Virginia government reacted to the spectacle of interracial servant solidarity by slowly eliminating white servitude and expanding the then new institution of black chattel slavery. By doing this he could guarantee a permanent labor force and win the support of his constituents. Because of efforts like that of Governor Berkley, Virginia had become the primary site for the development of black slavery in the Americas. By the 1650s some of the indentured servants had earned their freedom.
The commitment to white supremacy in the South began with the planter's intention of keeping the institution of slavery. Whites perceived emancipation as "uncompensated liquidation of the nation's largest ... ... middle of paper ... ... for a certain candidate could determine the outcome of an election. Beatings, whippings, and raids on black homes continued throughout the South. Educated blacks and black leaders were persecuted and killed in order to persuade other blacks to refrain from objecting to longstanding policies. Blacks were tortured both mentally and physically in their struggle for freedom.
“Captive African and their descendants paid with their blood and sweat for the phenomenal expansion of human possibilities in the Atlantic world”(Rice, 62). Among many groups of people that migrated to America are the African Americans. At first it was by choice, but that gradually changed to being captured and forced to migrate to America to work in the plantation fields. African Americans faced racial oppression and prejudice in a land that put in its constitution “all men are created equal.” They were treated with disrespect, hostility, and cruelty and made inferior to their fellow beings. Despite the abolishment of slavery with the thirteenth amendment, African Americans still faced prejudice and racial hostility from all around.
However, Lemann connects the acts of violence to show an orchestrated movement intended to undermine both keys to the freed blacks’ quality of life, organizing abilities and voting rights. Violence against blacks existed for years, but in the form of a master supposedly disciplining his slave. The acts of violence outlined by Lemann show a shift from fear and ignorance to organized intimidation. After all, whites of the time viewed themselves “as protectors of [the] natural order” meaning racial superiority (65). What first started as a fear of being the minority turned quickly to a fear of losing political power and economic wealth.
Jim Crow, a series of laws put into place after slavery by rich white Americans used in order to continue to subordinate African-Americans has existed for many years and continues to exist today in a different form, mass incarceration. Jim Crow laws when initially implemented were a series of anti-black laws that help segregate blacks from whites and kept blacks in a lower social, political, and economic status. In modern day, the term Jim Crow is used as a way to explain the mass incarcerations of blacks since Jim Crow laws were retracted. Through mass incarceration, blacks are continuously disenfranchised and subordinated by factors such as not being able to obtain housing, stoppage of income, and many other factors. Both generations of Jim Crow have been implemented through legal laws or ways that the government which helps to justify the implementation of this unjust treatment of blacks.
In an attempt to maintain control over African Americans southern whites embraced forms of domestic terrorism though lynching and other methods of mob violence in order to keep the issue of race continuously present in the public mind. Justifying these acts as necessities to “keep the Colored man in his place and to prevent Negro domination”, whites maintain power by appealing to popular sentiments defining blacks as violent and out of control (Smith, 47). This popular support allowed almost free reigns of violence against blacks furthe... ... middle of paper ... ...fering Blacks protection the nation gave the impression that “the government under which we are expected live … if necessary, to die, does not offer them the protection commensurate with that devotion and loyaly”7 (Abbot, 1919). The consequence of this cannot be afforded by the nation. America cannot risk losing one eight of its population to lawlessness and treason.
The first chapter in The New Jim Crow called The Rebirth of Caste, Alexander talks about how even though slavery has passed and there are people still out there to keep our society divided. This was called racial hierarchy is a system of belief that some racial groups were either superior or inferior. The superior where considered the most powerful while this left the inferior at the bottom. As slavery left, the superior used the War on Drugs and mass incarcerations as a way to separate and control blacks once again but through the legal system. Alexander then comes into talking about the history before all this has happened.
During slavery being black meant to be a slave. During Jim Crow meant to be a second class citizen. And mass incarceration defines black people, especially men, as criminals. We can conclude with her analyses that the criminal justice in America is biased an even though I don’t agree with the suggestion Alexander has heard from other people that mass incarceration is a “conspiracy to put blacks back in their place” (p.5). It is clear that the justice system in the US is not completely fair, and that collective action must arise to struggle it.
There is discernment against the African Americans towards different privileges which are essential to their lives. This discrimination is political as leaders steer operations that are aimed at racially discriminating people from particular groups of race. There are more black Americans who are under correctional control, on parole or probation and in jail or in prison than they were enslaved in the 19th century. Now there ... ... middle of paper ... ...misinterpreted the whole problem of mass incarceration by repackaging and augmenting the existing social justice. The critiques have argued that Alexander created a strained similarity to the unique Jim Crow laws, employed a counter revolutionary conceptual framework and marginalized brown and black voices in favor of less radical and more mainstream perceptions.
The effects of diversity on our nation can be traced back to the civil war period. This period of upheaval is a perfect example of the struggle many Americans went through to free black slaves. The blacks were made slaves in the states for a number of reasons. The blacks were a representation of difference, therefore the whites viewed them as being unequal. We also seem to fear that which is different, so we try to keep them down.