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Diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas no longer produces insulin or when cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced so that glucose in the blood cannot be absorbed into the cells of the body. Diabetes is classified into two categories; Type 1. Approximately 14 million people in the United States alone have some type of Diabetes that is about 5% of the population. In the United States, Diabetes causes nearly 200,000 deaths a year.
The human pancreas has two main functions: to produce pancreatic endorphin hormones, which help regulate many aspects of our metabolism and to produce pancreatic digestive enzymes. Pancreatic production of insulin, somatostatin, gastrin, and glucagon plays an important role in maintaining sugar and salt balance in our bodies and therefore any problem in the production or regulation of these hormones will manifest itself with problems with blood sugar and fluid / salt imbalances.
Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are two diseases that can be compared and contrasted according to their causes. Type 1 diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes in that they are genetic diseases. Recently, researchers have been attempting to locate the genes for diabetes. As a part of the genome project in which researchers around the world are attempting to map the entire gene structure of all the human chromosomes, they have isolated 18 genes that appear to be involved in the production of type 1 diabetes. Not all of these genes have equal potency. Two of them appear to be most potent, some others are least potent, and others are simply auxiliary or helper genes that seem to have the similar effect in the process. There are also genes, which are protective so that one might inherit the genes for diabetes, but if the person also inherits the protective gene, they wouldn’t develop the disease. Thus, development of the disease is not 100% in those who have inherited the genes for the diseases. Those people may have the gene but may either have protective genes or be fortunate enough to avoid environmental stimuli. Moreover there are probably multiple genes involved in type 2 diabetes. For whatever reason, this genetic factor can interact with some environmental factor such as obesity and excess caloric intake. When the person eats, food turns to sugar in the stomach an...

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...re similar in that both of them depend on the amount of insulin that controls the blood sugar. While the pancreas makes no insulin or produces a small amount of it in type 1 diabetes, it does not produce enough insulin in type 2 diabetes. Moreover, type 1 diabetes is similar to type 2 diabetes in that both of them have complications. Kidney and eye disease are the similar complications in both diseases. Unlike type 1 diabetes, which can increase the chance of developing a nerve disease, type 2 diabetes increases the possibility of heart disease. Furthermore, types 1 and 2 diabetes are two diseases which can be compared and contrasted according to their treatment. A healthy diet and exercises are the best treatment for both diseases. In addition, in case of type 1 diabetes, the patient should take injections. Conversely, in the case of type 2 diabetes, oral medications are needed if diet and exercise cannot lead to normal blood glucose. Oral medications include different types such as sulfonylurea drugs, biguanides (metformin), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, and meglitinides. Despite the differences noted, both diseases depend on the amount of insulin in the body

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