Removing malnutrition will break the cycle thus, stimulating progress in disease control, social reform, and economic prosperity. Invented in 1983 and first commercialized in 1995, GM crops are defined as, “foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism.”2 This review covers the chemistry behind modifying crops genetically, research on the health issues of GM food, the negative risks, corporation/monopoly danger, and the benefits/plan on the introduction of transgenic crops to Africa. Transgenic foods are created through a new genetic engineering process involving the splicing of mRNA in an organism and replacing part of the genome with an alternate gene pool. The objective of GM food was to create a more nutritional, animal resistant food to be mass produced in a cost effective manner.
The proponents present the input trait invention, which seeks to cultivate bioengineered elements into the crops with an aim of substantially reducing the incorporation of environmentally dangerous pesticides. They also present the output trait invention, which seeks to bioengineer attributes into the seeds with an aim of bolstering nutrition, shelf life and quality. In this regard, most scientists maintain that GMOs become mini factories in future, and would address malnutrition within the developing nations (Leggie and Durant 59). There is also the agronomic trait invention, which seeks to ... ... middle of paper ... ...mers Trust for Information: The Case of Genetically Modified Food?” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 86.5(2004): 1222-1229 Isaac, Grant, and Phillips Peter. “Market Access and Market Acceptance for Genetically Modified Products.” Proceedings of NE-165 Conference, Washington D. C.: London School of Economics, 2000.
In order to understand the controversy of genetically engineered crops one must understand what genetic engineering or genetic modification is: “GMO are organisms that are generated by combining genes of different species using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology. Resulting organisms are then said to be transgenic, genetically engineered or genetically modified (GM). This group of organisms includes... plants.” (Celec et al., 2005) The genetic modification of crops and plants was created so that crops could, “... protect themselves against insects and disease, to feed and vaccinate people at the same time, to flourish in poor soil and drought, or to improve the quantity and bioavailability of individual nutrients.” (Roberts, Struble, McCullum-Gomez, Wilkins, 2006). These benefits may seem to outweigh the risks and in reality they do, however this does not mean the consumer should not be notified of the risks they are taking. The hallmark of our free society demands that the consumer be able to choose whether or not they want to eat something that may have health risks product labeling that identifies GMO ingredients allows for consumers to choose a particular product while ensuring that the producer feel more at ease with the way they disclose information and promote their product.
Herbicide-resistant genetically-modified crop; its risks with an emphasis on gene flow. Weed Biology and Management 1, 42-52. Watkinson, A.R. et al. (2000).
INTRODUCTION Genetic engineering (GE) or genetic modification (GM) are both terms used to describe methods “ to cut up and join together genetic material and especially DNA from one or more species of organism and to introduce the result into an organism in order to change one or more of its characteristics”. Genetic technologies in crops involve the use of GE to change the make-up of certain plants in order to improve their quality or quantity. This essay will critique the following inference that: For centuries human beings have used conventional techniques of selective breeding and cross-breeding of animals and plants to add desired characteristics and reduce or eliminate unwanted ones. New genetic technologies should be welcomed as providing more efficient, effective and controlled mechanisms for improving the quality and quantity of food which can be produced from limited resources of land. ARGUMENT FOR THE STATEMENT.
219-226 4. Phytodetoxification of hazardous organomercurials by genetically engineered plants (2000, Feb) Nature Biotechnology, Pg. 213-217 5. GM crops: public perception and scientific solutions (1999, December) Trends in Plant Science, Pg. 467-469 6.
In recent decades, producers have been experimenting with different methods (e.g. GM, conventional, organic) to ensure staple crops (European Commission, 2010, p. 236). Explanation and Spreading of GM Food GM food is based on genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which can be defined as organisms in which genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. (Marie Kreipe, 2010, p. 3) As stated above, GM food is a product that has been created and modified with specific techniques by people and not naturally produced by nature, nowadays plenty country has been using this technology to modified (mostly) crops, so that crops could be resistant against pests, could stay longer, and could even eliminate some threatening pests. It’s created by injecting genes/DNA into it so it could change how does the plant normally grown into GM Plants.
Plant biotechnology uses genetic engineering, which is the process of manipulating genes through isolation and reintroducing the DNA into the cell. This gave birth to Genetically Modified Organism, which are organism according to Dr. Steve Windley, MD, whom structure is manipulated. Modifying these organisms could control what they react and don’t react to, such as resistance to herbicides or it could improve the nutritional content. The other effects may be growth, or a slew of a numerous effects that could go unnoticed for years The History of Genetically Modified Organism. Genetically Modified Organism was introduced to the public approximately fourteen years ago.
Scientists have been changing genomes of plants and animals by integrating new genes from a different species through genetic engineering, creating a genetically modified organism (GMO). Consumers in America have been eating GMOs since 1996, when they went on the market. There are benefits to genetically modifying crop plants, as it improves the crop quality and increases yield, affecting the economy and developing countries. But there are also negative effects from GMOs. Consumption of GMOs has various health effects on both body systems of animals and humans.
n.d. Possible benefits of GM crops in developing countries. [online] Available at: http://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/gm-crops-developing-countries/gm-crops-developing-countries-possible-benefits-gm-crops-developing-co [Accessed: 7 Apr 2014]. Qiu, J. 2013. Genetically modified crops pass benefits to weeds.