In Daqing Yang’s “The Malleable and the Contested”, he gives a detailed explanation on when and how the Nanjing Massacre became such a controversial issue both in China and Japan today. He primarily focuses on the publications that brought awareness of the incident. He also signifies how politics can be a factor in these memories. Right after Japan’s defeat, Japanese atrocities were brought up to the Tokyo War Trials. During the early post-war period, the Nanjing Massacre was acknowledged in Japanese textbooks. It was not until the conservative Liberal Democratic Party’s establishment that the focus on the massacre was lightened in textbooks. On the other hand, the People’s Republic of China brought up the massacre by portraying the communist as the winner who fought against the Japanese in the war, and also focused more on how the United States was the key factor that caused the massacre instead of the Japanese. Yang points out in his article “As China continued its internal struggles to weed out domestic enemies, class conflict, rathe...
Railton, Ben. The Chinese Exclusion Act: What It Can Teach Us about America. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.
Michelle Chen is a student at City University of New York Graduate Center studying history. She’s one of the contributing editor at In These Times, an associate editor at CultureStrike and a blogger at The Nation. She’s also one of the co-producer of “Asia Pacific Forum” on Pacifica’s WBAI and Dissent magazine’s Belabored podcast.
Fairbank, John King, and Merle Goldman. "The Nationalist Revolution and the Nanjing Government." China: a new history. 2nd enl. ed. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2006. 279. Print.
Wu, Frank H. "Embracing Mistaken Identity: How the Vincent Chin Case Unified Asian Americans." Asian American Policy Review 19 (2010): 17-22. ProQuest. Web. 5 May 2014.
The debate over Japan’s potential instigation of World War II raged on as intensely as the aggressive policies of Japan in question. Both teams engaged in total warfare, utilizing statistics, harsh interrogations through cross-examinations, and all other weapons available to them, in order to defend their grounds from attack. But while some arguments had proven to be successfully devastating, several others had been misused, misinterpreted, or simply unstated; specifically, the contentions regarding Japan’s excluded state from global international politics, the trigger of the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the rationale behind the attack on Pearl Harbor could have been substantially augmented on both sides.
Darwin's law of natural selection reveals that the natural world is indeed a brutal place, where those unfit for their environment will be supplanted by the better adapted. Just as the Galapagos Islands showcased the process of evolution within the natural world, the island of Taiwan has been a petri dish for natural selection of the political sphere even as the first western powers showed interest in the island. This early pre 1750s period of Taiwanese history had the factions of the Taiwanese Aborigines, Chinese and Dutch all striving for control over the island. As in early Taiwan along with the rest of the world, typically the actuality of who will have de facto rule is often dictated by military might rather than modern ethical ideal of who morally has the right to govern but this strength to grasp power is not the sole aspect of legitimacy to rule. There must also be additional attributes to gain power and keep it, such as the will to claim the title of ruler and a level of political competency to govern the land and its people. Looking back in hindsight the Taiwanese Aborigines, in comparison to the Dutch and Chinese, fulfill the requirements of political legitimacy, through military strength, governing prowess, drive for ownership and modern ethical views, answering the historical question, that has seeped into current political issues, of what faction had the right to rule early Taiwan.
In 1972, President Richard Nixon was quoted as stating that his visit to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) “changed the world…to build a bridge across sixteen thousand miles and twenty-two years of hostilities.” By meeting with Chairman Mao Zedong in Beijing, Nixon took groundbreaking first steps to opening relations and formally recognizing the People’s Republic of China. The history of the aforementioned hostilities between the United States and the PRC dates back to the Chinese Communist Party’s takeover of mainland China following its civil war in the post-World War II era. When the PRC was formally proclaimed in 1949 towards the close of the Chinese Civil War, the United States decided against recognizing its establishment and instead chose to back Taiwan, also known as the Republic of China. This decision was a product of its political environment, as President Harry Truman had just established the Truman Doctrine, which sought to check presumed Communist and Soviet aims to expand. In order to remain consistent and credible with its containment policy, a precedent was set and relations between the United States and the PRC remained closed. Tensions were only exacerbated during the Korean War in the 1950’s as the PRC intervened on behalf of the North Koreans and during the War in Vietnam in the 1970’s in their support of the North Vietnamese. Thus it is understandable that to the public eye, Nixon’s meeting with Mao Zedong in 1972 seemed to come out of the blue and was difficult to interpret given the context of Sino-US relations in the two deca...
The My Lai Massacre is an event that will be forever imprinted on our hearts. The stories of those who survived, and those who are gone. Many things have been written about My Lai, but not all of them are true. So many things were transposed that the facts are hard to find. I feel that I have done a careful job of weeding the true from the false. When one hears about My Lai, they must remember what happened, and the heinous cover-up of these events. All these findings will raise the biggest question of all, why is it important for us to know? In this study of the My Lai Massacre I intend to answer all these elements here mentioned.
History will never forget the pain because it takes an ethnic or even a nation to remember it. The Nanjing Massacre, which is my home country’s pain and shame, is not going to be forgotten and ignored either. The Raping of Nanking by Iris Chang, a Chinese American writer has reshaped my view on the atrocities the Japanese soldiers had committed and raises a question: Why we need to remember the past and face it? Remembering history does not just mean to be blocked by the past and stop moving on but looking for the lessons the history has taught us and prevent the world from making the same mistakes again.
Nathan, Andrew J. "The Consequences of Tiananmen." Interview by Maria E. Viggiano. Reset DOC: History. Reset Dialogues on Civilizations, 3 June 2009. Web. 07 May 2014.
“Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we’ve been waiting for. We are the change that we seek.” Because of the failure of the government in late Qing period, government officers and citizens noticed that they should have reforms or changes in order to make their nation be better. Moreover, since Qing’s army was defeated in the First Sino Japanese War unexpectedly, people from all walks of life also astounded with the rising of Japan. Consequently, officers suggested an idea of “Chinese learning for substance, Western learning for practical application.” to strengthen the country. In addition, Japan was one of the countries which China tried to learn from them in those years. In the following paragraphs, I am going to examine how the Japan influenced the political development of China from the 1900s to the 1930s in different perspectives.
The massacre that happened on February 28 in Taiwan started because of an incident that happened on February 27. A Tobacco Monopoly Bureau in Taipei ceased cigarettes and took earnings from Lin Jiang-mai, a 40 year old lady. When Lin demanded her money back, a man held a gun to her head (“Stand up for Taiwan”). Innocent bystanders saw this and charged at the men; one of the men shot into the crowd and killed one person. The Taiwanese people reached a breaking point and were fed up with the Kuomintang’s corruption. The following day and days after violent protest broke out spontaneously. For a while, the Taiwanese people had control over Taiwan. During this team, the people sent a list of demands that included, free elections and the surrender of the Republic of China’s army, to the government. Also, during this time, the government was preparing a massive military force in mainland China. March 7, 1947 was the first day of three day killing spree started by the Republic of China, under the command of Chen Yi. There was an approximately killing of 3,000 to 4,000 people throughout the island; however, the exact number is undetermined (“Stand up for Taiwan”). The White Terror era followed this event and lasted to 1987.
Nanking suffered a severe tragedy in six weeks that its memories fail to erase. The tragedy consisting of rape, murder, and looting will never disappear from the city or its inhabitants. Thanks to John Rabe and several others, thousands of Chinese were able to survive. The history of the massacre was slowly dying, but because of books and museums, the history lives onward. The Japanese have not repaired Nanjing or educated their own country about their own mistakes. The Japanese still refuse to believe that the massacre even occurred even though there are pictures of the event and vital proof. The Japanese have surely left a blood stain in the history of this world.