Geothermal energy is a renewable energy resource which can heat and cool buildings. Although there are some by-products, using a particular type of system can help stop their emission. In conclusion, the use of geothermal energy can be used at a grand scale in the United States. Introduction In today's society, the need for an alternative source of energy has become an increasingly important issue. As the world's natural resources, such as water and oil, raise concern over energy security (MIT, January 22, 2007, para.
The diversification in terms of sustainable energy and the utilization renewable energy options in various practical uses have become one of the most significant factors as a substitutable source for oil and gas. In addition, it could be a viable solution for environmental problems. Omubo-Pepple et al. (2009) believe that the effective solution for environmental degradation, resulted from the use of fossil fuels which caused some dangerous problems such as acid rain, green house effect and ozone layer depletion, is to increase in renewable energy options uses. Indeed, some countries such as United States, Germany, Spain and Japan are progressively undergoing transition from hydrocarbon-based economy to one based on sustainable forms energy.
Wind Power’s Present and Potential Abstract As the global supply of fossil fuels becomes steadily lower, need is growing for new energy sources that are beneficial to the environment and cost-effective. Wind power is one solution to this need. Wind turbines require significant investment, but are cost-efficient in the long term. If construction of turbines is sufficiently increased, the wind may be able to in the future provide a very major portion of global energy. Wind Power’s Present and Potential According to a study by Archer and Jacobson, the wind power potential provided by just the windiest 13% of the planet’s land area is five times the power that we currently use – 72 terawatts (Archer, Jacobson, 2004).
Solar energy was first started in the 1860s when Auguste Mouchout and William Adams found a way for storing solar radiation into tanks of water. Since then, there have been improvements to the processing of solar energy, which has been split into two categories: agricultural based and electricity based. The agricultural method, otherwise known as thermal solar energy, uses the sunlight to heat liquid and power steam engines. Solar collectors can be used on houses or business buildings to store the energy. Different types of solar collectors are flat-plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors and integral collector storage systems (US Department of Energy, 2007, para.
This shows that the US is already converting to renewable resources such as wind and solar. The Power of Wind 6 References University at Buffalo, UB Green: Wind Energy. (2007, July) http://wings.buffalo.edu/ubgreen/energyforthefuture/technologies/wind.htm July 26, 2007. Where the Wind Blows, The Economist. Retrieved July 30, 2007, http://www.economist.com/science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9539765 July 26, 2007.
One of the issues that has a significant influence on sustainable economic and social development is energy. The utilization of energy results in climate change owing to its impact on environment by greenhouse gas emissions. This is resulted from the convention of using oil, gas, and coal that emit CO2, NOx and other poisoning substances into the air. The national strategy of China is to reduce this pollution by replacing fossil fuels with alternative energy such as wind, nuclear, geothermal, hydropower or solar energy. (Zhen 2008).
Wind Power: Nature’s Gift Wind power is a clean and renewable energy that, while at times unreliable, has very low upkeep cost and is growing at a rapid rate. While there is currently enough wind power to provide many times our current energy need, it is unfeasible in reality. Wind power utilizes the kinetic energy of air and uses it to power a generator to produce electricity. Even though dependence on wind power is impossible, it still can provide a strong, clean, quantity of power to supplement current energy production. Wind energy is essentially the conversion of the kinetic energy from air molecules in motion to mechanical energy which is generally then converted into electrical energy.
This essay will give an outline of three sources of renewable energy to be used in developing nations, which are solar energy, wind power and biomass. First, it will give a definition of fossil fuel and renewable energy, then it will move to analyse these three sources, evaluating them in three criteria: technology, cost and reliability to see whether they have great potential helping the developing world moving upwards in the future development. Firstly, it is important to make clear the definition of fossil fuels and renewable energy. Fossil fuels can be defined as solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels formed in the ground after millions of years by chemical and physical changes in plants and animal residues under high temperature and pressure. According to Franchi (2005: 72), “renewable energy is energy obtained from sources at a rate that is less than or equal to the rate at which the source is replenished”.
This solar power would, in turn, be generated from solar thermal plants scattered across the correlating area (Richard). A project known as Tres Amigas SuperStation in Clovis, New Mexico, is geared toward an American domination of renewable energy. This, as well as a couple of other similar projects, is currently working to shape a sustainable alternate energy management system by tracking the electricity use as well as controlling a healthy amount of renewable energy consumption for the future (BioCycle). The Western Interconnection powers a number of everyday critical utilities without which modern industrialization and technological innovation cannot flourish. The main systems include natural gas pipelines, electricity ... ... middle of paper ... ...es.cnn.com/2007-09-26/us/power.at.risk_1_generator-cyber-attackelectric- infrastructure?_s=PM:US>.
Abstract-Many different techniques for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic arrays were introduced. This paper develops an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm for optimizing solar array performance based on incremental conductance (INC) and gradient descent algorithm .In conventional INC method the step size determines how fast the MPP is tracked. Fast tracking can be achieved with bigger increments but the system might not operate exactly at the MPP and oscillate about it instead; so there is a tradeoff between the time needed to reach the MPP and the oscillation error. In this work we have an adaptive step that brings the operating point of the PV array close to the MPP with a bigger step size and then uses INC to exactly track the MPP with a lower step. The experimental results show the notable improvement in the time needed to reach the MPP and also minor oscillation error which increases the accuracy of the system.