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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths throughout the world, having more than a million deaths annually. Lung cancer, a known genetic disorder, is caused primarily by cigarette smoking. With the recent discoveries on the so-called epigenetics, researchers seek to understand the complex series of epigenetic alteration in lung cancer development. The development of lung cancer is now observed not only on its genetic characteristics but specifically, its epigenetic manifestation (Wen et al. 2011, p. 932). In contrast, recent epidemiological studies suggest that leafy green vegetables could reduce the risk of lung cancer (Stidley et al. 2010, p. 568). The understanding of the epigenetic connection from cigarette smoking to lung cancer development will enable early detection and prevention from cancer, as well as recognizing the role of leafy green vegetables in reducing the risk of getting lung cancer. Cigarette smoking is the most common single cause for developing lung cancer, according to Shahnaz Begum (2012). Cigarette produces tobacco smoke which is composed of numerous chemicals and complex mixtures known as carcinogens. There are approximately 60 carcinogens which work as both initiator and promoters in lung cancer development, entering the body via airways. Some of the tobacco smoke’s components are dissolved in the saliva and absorbed through the epithelium or swallowed. These products of smoking reach all the organs and tissues via the bloodstream. Some of the carcinogens found in tobacco smoke are nicotine, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nicotine-derived ketone, acrolein, oxidants and reactive nitrogen moieties. For example, nicotine and hydrocarbons are carcinogens that target inflammatory cel... ... middle of paper ... ...th multivitamins use. Therefore, intake of leafy green vegetable can affect the likelihood of getting lung cancer (Stidley et al. 2010, p. 568). In conclusion, epigenetic changes in lung cancer are associated with cigarette smoking. Carcinogens from cigarette smoke cause aberrant methylation on the oncogenes, making them inactive or overactive in their function. These epigenetic alterations cause gene’s function to be inactive or overactive, generating DNA damage and abnormal cell proliferation. These uncontrolled damage and growth promotes cancer cell development (Begum 2012, p. 97-98). Meanwhile, the intake of leafy green vegetable which is the natural source of folate, reduces the chance of acquiring lung cancer. Folate maintains normal cell division and prevent DNA methylation; thus, preventing alteration in methylation and damage on DNA (Fenech 2012, p. 21).

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