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Maximized Expected Utility in the Case of Interdependent Action In his work called, “Reason and Maximization,” Gauthier begins by arguing that maximizing expected utility in the case of interdependent action is irrational. He states that "man cannot escape the state of nature by agreement alone" (Gaudier, 426). The first reason why Gaudier considers interdependent actions irrational is because of the fact that the agreed action can be considered rational only when it brings the optimal outcome. The second reason is due to the contradiction that it creates when taking a look at the example of the Prisoner's Dilemma. The last reason why Gaudier rejects the rationality of interdependent action would be because the agreements made by interdependent people cannot be located in the mutual equilibrium. However, towards the end of his work, Gaudier rejects his original position by stating that maximizing expected utility can be, in fact, considered rational in the case of interdependent action. This may be because Gaudier finds out that some fallacious points about his original arguments. An argument against the position that Gauthier defends would be arguing that the case of interdependent actions is irrational. In the section VI of his work, "Reason and Maximization," Gauthier first shows a comparison between the independent action and the interdependent action. He defines the independent action as an action that each individual selects for oneself; and the interdependent action as an action that everyone agrees upon. Gauthier also describes the interdependent action as action in "civil society" with a "common framework of action" (Gauthier, 424). In the case of interdependent choice, the outcome would be determined jointly by ... ... middle of paper ... ...ionality is not connected with maximization as it could be just that those people who are rational with individual utility-maximization will not always achieve optimal outcomes (Gauthier, 427). I personally agree with Gauthier's argument made in the beginning of his work about interdependent people being irrational because of the reasons that he has provided, such as the agreement made by the interdependent people being considered rational only when it brings the optimal outcome, the contradiction that interdependent actions create and the agreements made by interdependent people not being able to reach to the mutual equilibrium. I found Gauthier's later arguments, about why interdependent actions can be considered rational, very hard to follow and vague. Therefore, I believe that independent actions are irrational when it comes to maximizing the expected utility.

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