The debate concerning the nature of the relationship between race and intelligence has been highly contested by psychologists for many years. With the emergence of genetic research in recent times, some clarity has been provided, however, many unanswered questions still remain. This essay discusses the implications of IQ test scores and the potentially misleading information they generate when administered to non-Western individuals. Although it is argued that race is a dynamic social construct and therefore not scientifically sound, this essay will explain why considering context-specific information about an individual is vital when assessing their intelligence due to the substantial roles environmental factors play in the learning process. In fact, internal genetic factors and external environmental factors both contribute to the development of intelligence.
Intelligence therefore should be considered to be a broad and elusive concept with many distinct aspects to it. Research in the field of animal intelligence is essential to understand the more complex aspects of human intelligence. Ken Richardson, an honorary senior research fellow in the center of human development and learning at the Open University, in his book The Making of Intelligence remarks: “We can examine the nature of intelligence in its simpler - and hopefully more comprehensive - form in other animals, and thus describe it, and how it has increased in humans, more clearly.”(9) Even though animals can provide us with explanations, in many cases scientists are amazed by their intellect. According to Eugene Linden’s article in the Times, dolphins can to a command such as “now let’s try a tandem creative” with amazing stunts of synchronization. Only through conscious thought can they understand the meaning of being creative.
Can psychology be a science of mind?. American Psychologist, 45(11), 1206-1210. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.45.11.1206 Snoeyenbos, M. H., & Putney, R. (1980). Psychology and science. The American Journal Of Psychology, 93(4), 579-592. doi:10.2307/1422365
Cognitive Science and Its Link to Artificial Intelligence In recent years, researchers in the field of psychology have turned their collective attention to the developing field of cognition. The term comes from the Latin word cognoscere, meaning “to come to know”, and today is defined by the Merriam-Webster dictionary as “the act or process of knowing, including both awareness and judgment”. Cognitive psychology seeks to identify and examine the elements composing human intelligence. This includes the study of human learning or intellectual development, problem solving, memory, the human language, and the processing and comprehension of information. These functions are often taken for granted as part of human existence.
The Question of Non-Human Intelligence Human beings have long assumed that they were at the pinnacle of the evolutionary pyramid thanks mainly to their more complex brain. They believe that this advanced brain makes them not just more intelligent but categorically different from all other organisms. Recent advances in the fields of neurobiology and anatomy have begun to chisel away at this most scared of human assumptions and demonstrate that human brains, and the intelligence associated with them, are not categorically different than other animals. Instead the research indicates that intelligence is on a continuum from "lower" animals to "higher" ones. These findings led to new fields of research which sought to gain a better understanding of intelligence and its evolution by comparing the behaviors and the brains of various organisms.
The first takes the form of a series of contrasts which, when put together as a list of disjuncts, may be called the contrast-criteria of intelligence. The second may take the form of the characteristic activities which comprise the criteria of intelligence. This subject is but a small part of the larger issue that is waged between dualists and materialists: whether the words used to ascribe mental qualities have a physical or "psychological" reference. Much of the literature concerned with this broader topic takes on the character of a general broadside against either the materialist or dualist position. When specific qualities of our mental life are discussed, it is discussed either in passing, or to make certain that they be assimiable to the general thesis being propounded.
We must use approach revising history with extreme caution and skepticism. The human sciences has had its share in correct theories and disproven theories, but the disproven theories also furthered knowledge in the human sciences since new discoveries were soon replaced such as how genetic influence replaced the clean slate theory. We must learn from our mistakes in order to redirect our approach to discovering accurate knowledge.
He regards genes- the "replicator" as the brain that determines the resultant individual as a temporary storage unit until it is next passed on and he disregards the individual as a mere holding unit- the "vehicles". I do not however agree on the totalitarian effect of genes on an individual. I believe that nature and nurture interacts to bring about the complete individual. In this essay, I shall use the impact of nature vs nurture on IQ of people to illustrate my viewpoint. This is because the inherent interest of researchers as people on the factors that influence IQ has allowed a wealth of references to be discussed as below.
The preopera... ... middle of paper ... .... (1992) "Connectionism and developmental theory", British journal od developmental psychology, 10, pp.209-54. Cited in Lee V. and Gupta P.D. (2001) (eds) "Childs Cognitive and language development", Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Oxford Thorndyke, E.L. (1911) "Animal intelligence" New York: MacMillan. Cited in Roth, I. (2000) "Introduction to psychology" vol 1, Psychology Press, East sussex Vygotsky, L.S.
When attempting to explain something as intangible and complex as human behavior it is difficult to devise experiments that lead to conclusive results. Sometimes complex problems are easier to solve when they are broken down into smaller pieces or into simpler problems that are more approachable. Using human evolution to explain human behavior is such an example. Evolutionary psychology reaches for the roots of human development when they were in their most basic stages to explain why people behave the way they do. Specifically, explaining human masculinity through science has been a major focus of evolutionary psychology.