cognition

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Introduction Cognitive psychology refers to the scientific investigation of human mental faculties, i.e. perceiving, learning, remembering, reasoning, thinking, and understanding. From within this extensive subject appears the ongoing debate concerning human intelligence. One of the most elusive foci of cognitive psychology, due to difficulties with defining and measuring it, intelligence is nevertheless the most intriguing as psychologists the world round study and attempt to further our understanding of it. In recent years, discoveries have shed light on, with hindsight, a rather biased view on whether intelligence is determined solely by genetics or our environment. According to Eysenck, this is due mainly to larger and better selected samples, as well as technological advances within molecular genetics. When determining the malleability of intelligence, one must first have a firm grasp of what, exactly, intelligence is. Most definitions reflect the psychometric approach (Gross), which deals with measuring differences in individuals through tests. These can be divided into those with a narrower view (Burt and Terman, in Gross), which is seen in the idea of general intelligence ‘g’ (Spearman, in Gross), and those with a somewhat broader definition, which generally attempt to include aspects beyond cognition (Binet and Wechsler, in Gross). Along with these are some who define intelligence not as a noun, but as an adjective, i.e. intelligent activity (Heim and Ryle, in Gross). This ongoing debate must be taken into account when investigating the malleability of intelligence, as IQ scores do not necessarily equate to actual intelligence, lending certain limitations to the references. In spite of these limitations, opponent... ... middle of paper ... ... Harmondsworth, Penguin. In Gross, 2001. Rutter, M. (and the English and Romanian Adopteer (ERA) study team), 1998, Developmental Catch-up, and Deficit Following Adoption After Severe Global Early Privation. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 39(4), 465-476. In Gross, 2001 Ryle, G., 1949, The Concept of Mind, London, Hutchinson. In Gross, 2001. Spearman, C., 1904, General Intelligence, Objectively Determined and Measured, American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201-293. In Gross 2001. Sternberg, R.J., 1998, How Intelligent is Intelligent Testing?, Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence, 9(4), 12-17. Terman, L., 1921, In Symposium: Intelligence and its Measurement, Journal of Educational Psychology, 12, 127-133. In Gross, 2001. Wechsler, D., 1944, 3rd edition, The Measurement of Adult Intelligence, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins. In Gross, 2001.

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