cells

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Because a synchrotron gives the spectrum, energy tunability and potential for (sub-) micron-sized beams, that offering unique opportunities for a variety of complementary X-ray techniques. Material properties can be known within in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces. Section Topography, Rocking Curve Imaging, and X-ray Diffraction Imaging show some defects namely misorientations, inclusions, strain and dislocations whether in the bulk or at surfaces.
Simultaneous measurement of micro-X-ray Beam Induced Current (m-XBIC) and micro-XRay Fluorescence (m-XRF) provides direct correlation between impurities and photovoltaic (PV) performance. Using them with different techniques such as microscopy and Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) measurements, making the correlation between structural properties and PV can be expected, in addition to the relative influence of parameters such as a defect type, size, density, and spatial distribution.

Introduction:
Photovoltaic (PV) technology simply means converting sunlight directly into electricity, “photo” means light and “voltaic” relates to the production of electricity [1]. A (PV) cell can be called “Solar cell” which is an electrical device, producing electricity when they expose to the sun rays [2]. The first solar cell was developed by Chapin, Fuller and Pearson at Bell Laboratories in 1954 using a silicon pn-junction made of semiconductor material with large surface area, [2]. Since then solar cells have been broadly used for power supply purpose. On the other hand, a synchrotron is a particle accelerator that produces very bright light (electromagnetic waves) in the region from infrared through to X-rays. Synchrotron radiation offers a superior light source for many conventional ‘pho...

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...ation properties and characteristics to be wide-ranging and controlled.

Synchrotron imaging techniques and photovoltaic cells:
As known, about 90% of PV cells in the world are made from a highly purified form of silicon, as used in integrated circuits [5, 6]. Combining enhanced signal-to-noise ratios with any of conventional laboratory techniques such as; X-ray fluorescence (XRF), infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be performed better. Also, coupling with high performance monochromation effects on the brightness results which enhances the spectral resolution. In addition, bright photon beams can be controlled by efficient focusing which helps to concentrate the beam on spot sizes until tens of nanometer in X-ray applications and diffraction limited spots for IR spectroscopy. Fortunately, by the use of synchrotron radiation, new measurements can be achieved.

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