athens rome

analytical Essay
895 words
895 words

 Democracy-rule by the people
 Power in Council
 Leading the Council was oligarchy (small group of rulers who controlled the judicial, military, civil and religious functions of government)
 Oligarchy became powerful and passed laws for its benefit
 Farmers and merchants revolted
 Nobles saw the danger in the future, so they distributed land of the wealthy to the poor and it gave Assembly power to pass laws and elect gov’t officials
 Direct democracy developed-more people had a say in gov’t
 Beliefs: Majority rule (law making process and jury trials), all citizens equal
 Women, slaves and foreigners were not citizens- unable to be in gov’t, poor could not afford education and there were lotteries rather than elections.

 Republic-representative democracy, one citizen represents a number of others
 Social structure: patricians (upper, landowners) and plebians (lower, farmers)
 Each had lawmaking body, but only patrician Senate could pass laws
 Plebians wanted greater role in gov’t-they were allowed to hold gov’t posts
 Beliefs: lawmaking bodies on state and local levels, all free men have equal rights, innocent until proven guilty, certain rights can never be taken away
 Contributions: system of laws- patrician judges made unfair decisions, therefore, laws were written down to handle similar cases similarly

English Traditions:
 “cultural baggage”-brought traditions of England to America
 Common Law-judicial decisions standardized-judges look back on past similar cases
 Precedents-previous decisions and local customs of people-same decisions applied for all- this is today’s basic legal procedure-cite past cases to prove theirs
 Magna Carta (1215)-king not above law, trial by jury (peers), speedy trial, protections from unjust punishment
 Parliament-English lawmaking and rep. Body. Parliament grew in power because monarchs need money-this idea was that of limiting power within gov’t through three branches
 Bill of Rights (1689)-monarch must have consent of people, through their rep. in parliament , in order to tax and change laws

European Philosophers:
 John Locke-natural rights (peop...

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... on Americas side-showed the connection between England and America was only the tyrannical king, did not talk about parliament

 Unitary system: strong centralized gov’t-only they can make laws
 Governors and judges-limited to terms and limited veto power
 Confederation-loos association of independent states bound for particular purpose
 AC-bounded 13 colonies for common purpose-defense and welfare
 Congress-coin money, borrow money, treaties, make war and peace
 Postives of AC-gov’t waged successful war and peace-US got NW Territory. Land Ordinance of 1785- divided land into townships and each further divided and auctioned off for $1 an acre-proceeds went to public schools
 Negative-Congress- no power to tax of regulate trade-therefore, gov’t could not pay off debts from AR.- states placed tariffs on good imported from other states hoping to protect sale of own products-resulted in trade wars in ill feelings
 Shay’s Rebellion-farmers rebelling (2,000) against state gov’t because governor was insensitive-this event ran doubts in others- is America one nation or thirteen?

In this essay, the author

  • Opines that the oligarchy led the council, controlling judicial, military, civil, and religious functions.
  • Explains nobles saw the danger in the future, so they distributed land of the wealthy to the poor and it gave assembly power to pass laws and elect gov’t officials.
  • Opines that women, slaves and foreigners were not citizens, unable to be in government, poor could not afford education, and there were lotteries rather than elections.
  • Explains that england sent hessians to attack colonies, and withdrew its protection from colonies (open to indian attacks).
  • Analyzes how common sense-thomas paine, sold 120,000, showed divisions between england and colonies and how it was 3,000 miles away.
  • Opines that patrician judges made unfair decisions, therefore, laws were written down to handle similar cases similarly.
  • Explains that magna carta (1215) and parliament grew in power because monarchs need money.
  • Explains locke's concept of natural rights and the social contract between people and gov't, citing montesquieu and rousseau.
  • Explains that mercantilism helped strengthen treasury and build military, and colonies got protection. the house of burgesses (1619) instructed colonies to setup their own assembly.
  • Describes the bicamercal legislature, the colonial council, and the french and indian war.
  • Analyzes how tg-all men are created equal, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. people made gov’t and they could abolish it.
  • Analyzes the postives of ac-gov’t waged successful war and peace-us got nw territory.
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