Roles and Responsibilty of speech languages pthaologists in Diagnosis assessments and the treatment of Austism Spectrum Disoders. Across the life span it plays a critical role.
...ats way faster than a normal person. Tachycardia can increase the patient’s chances of getting a stroke or going into a cardiac arrest (). 10% of the patients will develop diabetes and 20% will end up having carbohydrate intolerance ().
A case study of a ten year old girl with DS was given EPG therapy in order to resolve a phonological process of velar fronting. The study showed changes in the accuracy of the contact between the tongue and artificial palate over 14 weeks. Training with the visual feedback allowed the child to alter her tongue placement and generalize it to conversational speech (Wood, et al. 2009). As a result, she had fewer articulation errors and her intelligibility significant improved.
Goal: In 6 weeks, with a treatment frequency of 5 hours a week, mrs. K. speaks words with velar sounds (/ng/ /g/ /k/) in a 1-to-1 conversation with an acquaintance in an intelligible way.
Flaccid dysarthria results from damage to the lower motor neurons (LMN) or the peripheral nervous system (Hageman, 1997). The characteristics of flaccid dysarthria generally reflect damage to cranial nerves with motor speech functions (e.g., cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII) (Seikel, King & Drumright, 2010). Lower motor neurons connect the central nervous system to the muscle fibers; from the brainstem to the cranial nerves with motor function, or from the anterior horns of grey matter to the spinal nerves (Murdoch, 1998). If there are lesions to spinal nerves and the cranial nerves with motor speech functions, it is indicative of a lower motor neuron lesion and flaccid dysarthria. Damage to lower motor neurons that supply the speech muscles is also known as bulbar palsy (Pena-Brooks & Hedge, 2007). Potential etiologies of flaccid dysarthria include spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular accidents, tumors or traumatic brain injury (Pena-Brooks & Hedge, 2007). Possible congenital etiologies of flaccid dysarthria include Moebius syndrome and cerebral palsy. Flaccid dysarthria can also arise from infections such as polio, herpes zoster, and secondary infections to AIDS (Pena-Brooks & Hedge, 2007). Additionally, demyelinating diseases such as Guilian-Barre syndrome and myotonic muscular dystrophy can also lead to flaccid dysarthria (Pena-Brookes & Hedge, 2007). The lower motor neuron lesion results in loss of voluntary muscle control, and an inability to maintain muscle tone. Fasciculations, or twitching movements, may occur if the cell body is involved in the lesion (Seikel et. al., 2010). The primary speech characteristics of flaccid dysarthria include imprecise consonant production, hypernasal resonance, breathiness, and harsh voice (...
Parkinson’s Disease is known as one of the most common progressive and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. It belongs to a group of conditions known as movement disorders. Parkinson disease is a component of hypokinetic disorder because it causes a decreased in bodily movement. It affects people who are usually over the age of 50. It can impair an individual motor as well as non-motor function. Some of the primary symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are characterized by tremors or trembling in hands, legs and arms. In early symptoms the tremor can be unilateral, appearing in one side of body but progression in the disease can cause it to spread to both sides; rigidity or a resistant to movement affects most people with Parkinson’s disease, causes muscles to be tensed and contracted so that the person feel stiff. Bradykinesia is slowness in movement; person has difficulty performing routine work such as dressing, eating and walking, and it makes easy tasks somewhat difficult. Difficulty with walking and balancing is another common symptom of Parkinson’s Disease; it causes an individual to fall very easily. Some of the non-motor symptoms include disturbances in cognition, emotions (mood and motivation), sensation and perception, olfactory system, behavior inhibition, sleep disruption, autonomic function, decrease in gastric stability and fatigue (Cronin-Golomb, 2013). As these symptoms become progressive patients can have difficulty walking, talking or completing other daily task. Most of the time symptoms begin on one side of the body but as the disease progresses; it can affect both sides of the body.
“Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (B.S.)” Bloomu.edu. Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, 2014. Web. 28 April 2014.
Speech fluency is one of the ways in which classic aphasic syndromes can be classified. Nonfluent aphasics usually have damage in the front have of hemisphere dominate for language. This is localized anteriorly to the central sulcus. Patients that present this type of aphasia have a slow, effortful rate of speech characterized by frequent pauses between syllables and words (Brookshire, 2007).
It can be difficult to determine the specific cause of CAS in most children. However, it could potentially arise as the result of a stroke, traumatic brain injury, genetic disorder, or syndrome. ASHA states that it is important for one to “note that while CAS may be referred to as ‘developmental apraxia,’ it is not a disorder that children simply ‘outgrow’” (“Causes and Numbers,” 2011). With most disorders related to speech development, the child learns everything in the same order as others, just slightly slower than their peers. If a child is experiencing CAS, on the other hand, they do not learn sounds in the usual patterns and cannot improve without therapy or treatment. Though there is no cure for CAS, much progress can be made with “appropriate, intensive intervention” (“Causes and Numbers,” 2011).
Seeing the patient use AAC was quite interesting because during class discussions, I had little knowledge of this specific technique and seeing it firsthand made me comprehend its use and its importance. Additionally, the lessons I’ve learned in class helped me understand the things I saw during the observation. Due to the reports of the groups regarding the common disabilities and patients that speech pathologists encounter, I was able to make connections between what I learned in class and what I encountered during the observation. As mentioned earlier, the patients were diagnosed with intellectual disability, autism, and down syndrome, and all these disabilities were discussed during class, thus, while observing I was aware of what facets of language they may have difficulties in and the techniques or approaches that may be used to treat or help
Growing up with four siblings, your voice is not always heard. It was especially hard for my little brother who has verbal apraxia. Verbal apraxia is a motor speech disorder where there are problems saying sounds, syllables, and words. With this disorder, my brother knows what he wants to say, but his brain has a difficult time coordinating the muscle movements to say those words. Throughout his childhood, my brother would receive weekly treatments and therapy for his apraxia and I would tag along with him and my mother. I watched as my brother improved through these sessions. In the end, he could communicate with ease. It was not until recently that I decided to major in Speech and Language Pathology. It was hard seeing my brother struggle
(2013), the observed symptoms matched the predicted dysarthria types of ataxic, hyperkinetic, and spastic and the acoustic characteristic associated with them. However, dysarthria disorders dissociated with CP types in many ways. Given Schölderle et al., (2013) findings, clinicians should consider aspects beyond identifying disorders such as functional mechanisms and communication impairment when assessing dysarthria in CP patients. Therefore, when conducting an assessment for a patient with CP, an appropriate diagnosis of speech impairment should be conducted independently from dysarthria disorder. Lastly, I think when dealing with dysarthria syndromes in adult CP and adult acquired dysarthria; it is a must that the clinician can differentially diagnosis the two, because a technique that may work for an ataxic dysarthria client may not work for an ataxic CP client. Furthermore, being able to differentiate the two, will not only assist in prognosis but also allow the clinician create an appropriate treatment plan and goal for the
Script training is a personalized method for each patient, which aims to increase their linguistic capabilities. The method is employed by making the diseased person read and understand the scripts that are relevant to their day-to-day activities. These allow the patient for automatization of speech in daily activities and minimize the barrier of inexpressibility. The idea behind the formulation of this strategy is that it
In the last decade, technology has come a very far way, and it is just going to keep advancing. Technology greatly affects the future of speech language pathology. The knowledge and power that speech therapists have now has a lot to do with the devices and technological advances that have been made in the world; in the future, there will be even more. With future technology, therapists may be able to find quicker and more successful ways to treat a patient, have more advanced ways of conducting tests, and may even have more machines and information to be able to conduct even further research than what the field already has. Though technology has minor negative impacts, the list of positive impacts is forever growing. Technology has changed