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Gyroscopes are apparatus used for the measurement or maintenance of orientation, established by the principles of angular momentum. Before they are utilized as measurement instruments, they are used as self-balancing spinning toys, which are also known as, tops [1]. Today, the predominant use of gyroscopes is navigation. They are commonly used as a navigation aid in the inertial navigation system (INS), as a rotation sensor. According to Wikipedia, “inertial navigation is a self-contained navigation technique in which measurements provided by accelerometers and gyroscopes are used to track the position and orientation of an object relative to a known starting point, orientation and velocity”. It is used in a comprehensive range of applications, such as navigation of aircraft, tactical and strategic missiles, spacecraft, submarines and ships. The gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of the system in the inertial reference frame, in which the original orientation of the system is used as the initial condition. By integrating the angular velocity, the system's current orientation is known at all times [2]. A typical conventional gyroscope, like mechanical gyroscope measures orientation, instead of the angular velocity. The primary drawback of mechanical gyroscopes is that they consist of moving parts. Friction occurs due to the moving parts, which results in the output to drift over time. High-precision bearings and special lubricants are utilized to reduce friction, which increases the overall costs of the device. Besides, a few minutes are also required to warm up, which is not ideal in many circumstances [3]. Thus, modern gyroscopes that measure angular velocity are later introduced. Examples of the modern gyroscopes are micr... ... middle of paper ... ...ial resistance to movement. In addition, ring laser gyroscopes, which also use fiber optic cables, are also generally used as modern gyroscopes. Nonetheless, FOG still offers unique advantages over ring laser gyroscopes. For example, FOG is a true solid-state device, which has high reliability, long lifetime and is quick to start. Its sensitivity can be increased by adding more fiber wraps and no dithering is needed. Besides, it also tends itself to miniaturization [7]. Consequently, FOG has reached a level of practical use in navigation, guidance, control as well as stabilization of aircraft, missiles, automobiles and spacecraft, as shown in Fig. 1. Its performance and design requirements are adjusted to satisfy a wide range of applications such as route surveying and mapping, well logging, tactical missiles, smart bombs and satellite antenna stabilization [7].

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