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History of Homosexuality: In the past several decades, homosexuality has been a major issue that has largely been investigated by social scientists but has attracted minimal attention from historians. The minimal attention to homosexuality by professional researchers in history is attributed to the stigma associated with this issue (Licata & Peterson, p.3). Since this topic has emerged as a major controversial and divisive issue across the globe, examining its history is significant in understanding it and developing a position regarding it. The history of homosexuality can be traced to many centuries ago, especially in Ancient Rome where it was acceptable. However, in the past few years, this issue has attracted different opinions and positions that have contributed to the emergence of proponents and opponents groups. Homosexuality is a term that was introduced by Karoly Maria Benkert, a German psychologist, in the late 19th Century (Pickett par, 1). While this term is relatively new, the practice of homosexuality has a long history and tradition. Non-heterosexual relationships were accepted for several years before the proliferation of Christianity. Actually, the Roman, Greek, and Egyptian empires accepted this practice as a means of propagating and sustaining proper social norms (Rawlings par, 8). In ancient Rome, homosexuality was a large part of sexuality and the society since sex in this era was regarded as a casual daily practice without any emotional attachment. The most common form of homosexuality in this society was sexual relations between men, which involved older men marrying younger ones. Actually, gay marriage in ancient Rome was celebrated and common among select emperors (Wiker par, 3). These marria... ... middle of paper ... ...gal and a practice that should not be approved has contributed to enactment of laws that punish such sexual acts. For instance, Nigeria criminalized gay marriage and homosexuality in 2011, which are punishable with prison sentences of a maximum of 14 years. However, in regions with Sharia law in the country, the offense is punishable with a death sentence by stoning (Gray par, 1). This perspective of homosexuality has also contributed to several treatment measures, especially by anti-gay camps. The claim by these groups that they can cure homosexuality can be attributed to the long history of such treatment in psychiatric and psychological professions (Richards, p.29). The cure of treatment has several goals including lessening frequency of homosexual behaviors, increasing intensity of heterosexual ones, and examining the cognitive elements of such behaviors.

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