"Seeking Zion", by Rabbi Z.H Kalischer 1862 in A. Hertzberg (ed.)
The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader, New York:
 S. Avineri, The making of Modern Zionism: The Intellectual Origins
of the Jewish State (London: Weidenfeld and Nicoldon, 1981) p. 34.
 Ibid. pg 33
 Ibid. 37
 Avineri, p. 11.
 Hertzberg p. 125
 Avineri, "Modern Zionism", p 38.
 Hertzberg pg. 169
 Ibid. p.174
 Ibid. p. 177
 Ibid p. 176
 J. Katz., The Forerunners of Zionism', in Reinharz. Y. and
Shapira A. Essential Papers on Zionism, (New York: New York
UniversityPress, 1996.) p. 33
In this essay, the author
Argues that the emergence of a modern political zionist movement can be attributed to the rampant anti-semitism suffered by the european jews, but this does not provide an adequate explanation.
Argues that anti-semitism was not a phenomenon unique to the jews of the nineteenth century. exploration of transformation of jewish world in lieu of invention of modern world is imperative to understanding the development of zionism.
Explains that zionist writings marked the beginning of an active ideological movement advocating mass immigration to eretz israel. the nineteenth century was a dynamic climate in european politics.
Explains that grants of emancipation proliferated across europe, and the face of "jewish identity" was challenged. jews of europe were locked in their ghettoes and shtetls.
Explains how jews rushed to conquest secular society from which they had been cut off for centuries. from 1835-1914, jewish literary and cultural flourished.
Argues that the nineteenth century is regarded in history as the best century the jews had ever known since the destruction of the temple.
Explains that the emancipation and the enlightenment encouraged society to free itself from the ties of religious faith and turn the matter of religion into the private.
Explains that attending state secular schools based on general citizenship and not religious affiliation required jews to negotiate certain religious aspects and forced them to make hundreds of small choices and compromises
Explains that jews of western europe who sought to embrace secular life and discard the burdens of their jewish tradition formed a reform or secularized sect of judaism and became the "maskilim".
Analyzes how modernization and fragmentation between 1750 and 1850 successfully divided a linguistically and religiously united people into one of many religious sects and language clusters.
Explains that in 1750 almost all european jews practiced traditional judaism. by 1850 the majority of jews in western and central europe did not.
Explains that jews were forced to discern their own position amongst this nationalist surge. they embarked on the process of "haskalah" or jewish enlightenment.
Explains that modern vernacular and literature was the first step in the journey to try and provide a modern answer to the question of national identity.
Explains that self-determination in the post-emancipation world cannot be satisfied with an exclusively religious definition. during the nineteenth century, sentiment was aroused by rumors that the messianic era was at hand.
Explains that kalisher and alkalai published works explaining their ideas and encouraging jews to have national aspirations of independence.
Narrates how rabbi kalischer appealed to anschel rothschild to purchase the land of israel and rabbi alkalai published minchat yehuda in 1843.
Explains that alkalai called for the introduction of the tithe for financing settlement, for international recognition of jewish eretz israel and for a jewish army.
Opines that alkali and kalischer's notions based on "religious redemption", did not appeal to the jews embedded in the assimilation process of western europe.
Explains that zionism's new entry to the world in the late 19th century brought the adoption of new tactic and techniques to exploit the colonial expansion and national stirrings of europe.
Explains that pinsker, hess and lilienblum were influential zionist thinkers who emerged in the latter half of the nineteenth century whose motivation, audience and actions were completely unlike that of religious zionism. they were products of 'general' european education and secular academic success
Analyzes how these men were challenged by new definitions of nationalist identity, and motivated to embark on a quest to acquire self-respect in an uprooted society.
Explains that moses hess was the first "enlightened jew" to write of the modern idea of jewish national revival, based on the ideas of social justice, and to call for the establishment of an active political zionist movement and of a jewish socialist commonwealth in palestine.
Explains that hess was one of the first jewish thinkers to hypothesize that emancipation and secularization would ultimately exacerbate anti-semitism in europe.
Opines that the only solution to the jewish problem was the establishment of a national jewish society managed by jews.
Explains that hess recognized that the zionist movement would confront many obstacles, such as a difficulty in'reaching' the jews who were now religiously, spiritually and nationally divided people.
Opines that the pogroms in southern russia in 1881 deeply stirred public opinion in western europe and america and marked the beginning of a new era in modern jewish history.
Explains how the pogroms of russia reawakened the jewish solidarity and prepared the ground for a jewish national idea.
Analyzes how lilienblum signifies the shift from passive zionism to active politics as he appeals to the secular political values of jews in assimilated society.
Analyzes how lilienblum wrote that progress and civilization during the european enlightenment was doing nothing to eradicate anti-semitic views but "indirectly help them along."
Analyzes how lilienblum's main obstacle would be difficulty in gaining the support of "the enlightened people".
Explains the efforts of the first political zionist thinkers in the raising of funds, awareness and support were rigorous and revolutionary.
Explains that jewish philanthropists such as the montefiores and the rothschilds sponsored agricultural settlements, and immigrants from russia migrated to eretz israel in 1882. their effors led to the establishment of a committee meeting for the colonization of palestine.
Explains that the ottoman authorities, lack of funding, and conflicting predicaments imposed on jews during the nineteenth century prevented the work of earlier thinkers from being fully realized.
Explains that the various political and religious affiliations and inspiration on "forerunners of zionism" can be found permeating through the later writing of theodore hertzl proving the notion had been building for decades and that these thinkers were a significant and fundamental role in the formation of the ideology.
Explains the origins of the jewish state in london, weildenfeld and nicolson, 1981, and hertzberg, a., the zionist idea: a historical analysis and reader.
Cites a. hertzberg's the zionist idea: a historical analysis and reader. s. avineri, the making of modern zionism: the intellectual origins of the jewish state.
Zionism declares that “the Jews are more than a purely religious body, they are not only a race but also a nation” (Berkowitz 376). Theodor Herzl, the father of political Zionism, states, “We are a people- one people.” Both Herzl and Berkowitz have interesting key points about a Jewish State, the Jewish religion in general, and how to solve current issues in the religion. A State is formed by a social contract and is still being created today. Rousseau states, “The conditions of this contract are so precisely defined by the nature of the agreement that the slightest alterations would make them null and void. The consequence is that, even where they are not expressly stated, they are everywhere identical, and everywhere tacitly accepted and recognized.” States are mainly created by a nation struggling with social and political disputes. They are difficult to form because of opportunities for land. For example, most territories form because of breaking off from their mother countries. “We depend for sustenance on the nations who are our hosts, and if we had no hosts to support us we should die of starvation.” Herzl states that Jews have been faithfully repeating Anti-Semite’s words because of unjust accusations and the need to realize that the world is always changing and adding new properties.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how herzl and berkowitz have key points about a jewish state, the jewish religion in general, and how to solve current issues in the religion.
Analyzes how zionist and non-zionist hearts bleed together at cruelty and mistreatment of jews, but there are many differences in their portrayal of them.
Opines that zionism and the jewish state would face many risks, including land disputes, current communities moving to a new land, and past and future suffering.
Compares herzl and berkowitz's views on the jewish state and its risks and rewards.
Analyzes how herzl and berkowitz agree that the jewish problem exists wherever jews live in perceptible numbers because it is carried by the course of migration.
During World War II, millions of Jews fled from Germany to escape the brutality of Adolf Hitler. A Zionist movement established that all Jewish refugees were to flee to Palestine, a concept founded by The Jewish State, by Dr. Theodore Herzl, in order to unite all Jews in one holy state. The British were convinced in 1917 by Chaim Weizmann that all Jews needed their own territory in Palestine, and in the early 1920s, the British were given a mandate over Palestine by the League of Nations. Palestinians felt threatened by the rise in Jewish presence in their state, causing widespread fighting in order to expel Jews from the Arabians’ sacred Palestinian land. Ben-Gurion (also known as a member to the World Zionist Congress) was leader of the Jewish peoples in 1947, whereas there was no single leader of the Arabs, there were several influential figures to the cause: Haj Amin el-Husseini – grand mufti of Jerusalem, Azzam Pasha – secretary-general of the Arab League, King Abdullah of Transjordan – only leader open to a Arab-Jewish compromise, and Glubb Pasha – commander of the British-trained Arab Legion.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the zionist movement established that all jewish refugees were to flee to palestine, a concept founded by dr. theodore herzl, to unite all jews in one holy state.
Explains that the united nations committee on palestine (unscop) ordered that palestine be split into two states — one jewish, one palestinian.
Describes how the arab league met cairo in 1947 to discuss the threat of the jewish in their society. they decided to maintain a united nation, and prepped to take military action against the jews.
Explains that president truman issued an embargo to be sent to the middle east, banning arms to arabs as they please, causing the united states to withdraw its support of the partition plan.
Recounts the secret meeting of the national council that ben-gurion called on may 12th. jews were pro-immediate statehood, while others didn't.
Explains that gamal abdel nasser was appointed president of egypt in 1952 and began a blockade of israeli shipping through the suez canal.
Explains that ben-gurion agreed to attack sinai, while britain and france called the shots and told israel to advance while egypt was told to retreat. nasser sank ships to block the canal from seizure in retaliation.
Analyzes how the un interfered by ordering that all forces be removed from the egyptian state, which the british and french rejected. the us called for another cease-fire, supported by an unsuspected ally – the soviets.
Analyzes how nasser was pressured by syria to cease the presence of unef in egypt and the gaza strip, bringing heated government discussions and strong criticism from the united states, united kingdom, canada, and even israel.
Narrates how egypt's president nasser died in 1970 and was succeeded by anwar sadat, who openedly dealt with the soviet union.
Explains that although the war was short-lived and costly, it was not a total loss. the us was to lead the peace negotiation, step-by-step style. kissinger made many trips between israel, egypt, and other arabian states.
Explains how israel's step-by-step approach wasn't working. they pledged to never go to war with one another ever again, and became allies by 1978. sadat and begin signed peace treaties between egypt and israel.
Explains that the shah of iran was exiled by islamic people loyal to the ayatollah ruhollah khomeini, making the us entirely dependent on saudi arabian oil exports, and making israel more susceptible to negotiations.
Explains that lebanon had become a severely divided nation, split between muslims and christians, with even its capital city of beirut divided.
Explains how the palestinian rebellion became known as intifadeh: the palestinian uprising.
Explains that arafat supported the al-aqsa martyrs brigade, and ariel shannon was appointed as his successor.
Explains that after terrorist attacks on both borders, a three-month truce was decided upon, forcing israel to pull troops out of gaza and bethlehem, and released many known terrorists from captivity.
Explains that the geneva accord was established on december 1, 2003 in geneva, switzerland. it stated that peace would be maintained in israel and palestinians would gain a non-militarized state.
Opines that when both sides are fighting for equal or lesser causes, how does one decide on a victor? the jews and the arabs fought for sixty years over something so simple as the jews wanting to become their own state after they were forcefully expelled from germany.
The Status and Position of European Jews at the Beginning of the 20th Century
A Jew is a person belonging to the religion of the Jewish faith. At
the beginning of the 20th century many Jews occupied land in Europe.
The Jews had many different positions and status's depending on which
country they were living in, in some places Jews were welcomed as part
of the community but in other places there were always those who were
suspicious of them. Jews were discriminated (singled out) against by
many different ethnic groups before the 20th century, they were
especially discriminated against by Christians, as they believed Jews
were to blame for the death of Jesus.
In this essay, the author
Describes how they were forced to live in a part of russia known as the pale.
Opines that jews were seen as greedy in france.
Opines that jews were forced to work all day and nigh and some just sent to die.
Opines that some jews were shot into a mass grave.
Opines that jews who were helping them out had to suffer.
Explains that hitler and the nazis did all of this as part of their plan for the holocaust.
Since our country was established, immigrants from all over the world have come to America seeking a better life. As they progressively become more acquainted with the American life style they tend to become more involved in the daily interest of their new country. Specifically, Jews have been in the United States for centuries, but for a long time anti-Semitism and discrimination have made it very difficult for them to participate in politics. Jews have become a more active part of American politics due to Senator Lieberman’s candidacy for Vice President. However, Jew’s role in American politics has progressed over the years.
In this essay, the author
Explains that immigrants from all over the world have come to america seeking a better life. jews have been in the united states for centuries, but anti-semitism and discrimination have made it difficult for them to participate in politics.
Explains senator lieberman's suggestion that jews did not enter active politics during the early years of our nations history because of anti-semitism.
Explains that the jewish community was politically weak and its role in american society precarious before the new deal was created by roosevelt.
Explains that jews in congress have always maintained their american identity while still supporting their religious origin.
Explains that the absence of jews in the supreme court was present until the early twentieth century.
Explains that david levy yulee, a democrat from florida, was the first jewish senator elected into the united states senate in 1845.
Analyzes how the two broad opinions on internationalism and liberalism played a key role in jews' opinions. fuchs disputes the value of tzedakeh, which is paralleled to the democratic view of women’s rights and pro choice.
Explains that jews have become increasingly involved in the united states politics, but it wasn't until vice president al gore ran for presidency in 2000 that many jews felt more comfortable running for governmental positions.
Argues that jews are not as assimilated as other american ethnic groups of european origin. the identity of jews and the individuality is interpreted as tribute to the communal leadership they posses.
Explains that jews have had a twofold response to the american experience. anti-semitism was at its peak, but now jews are beginning to americanize more by entering politics, which could help stem the process of assimilation within the jewish community.
Opines that joe lieberman helped pave a road for all ethnicities, as mario cuomo, the former governor of new york, commented. jews have faced anti-semitism and criticism, but they have excelled.
Truman and the Creation of Israel
With the growing pressure for a new state of Israel after the atrocities committed against the Jews in World War Two, President Franklin D Roosevelt's adopted a neutral policy towards Palestine. Roosevelt felt like the United States needed complete cooperation from Jews and Muslims before they could get involved. When Roosevelt passed away in April of 1945, Harry Truman was thrown into the presidency of the United States. Along with the ongoing war with Japan and difficulties with the Soviet Union, there was immediate pressure from Zionist leaders to get something done. Truman said "I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets have fallen on me"(Levantrosser).
In this essay, the author
Explains that roosevelt's neutral policy towards palestine was influenced by his christian religious background and biblical teachings, which led to his involvement in the creation of israel.
Explains that harry s. truman was a very religious man. his strong christian beliefs were vital in the early decision making process on the palestine conflict.
Describes how truman's fascination for the middle east was evident. he spent over an hour discussing the historical significance of different areas of palestine.
Describes how truman assured rabbi stephen s. wise of new york that he supported the zionist goal but didn't want to take immediate action.
Analyzes how truman supported the zionist goals, but faced outside pressure from great britain and even the vatican on the dangers of zionism.
Explains that the american emergency committee for zionist affairs was made up of rich jews and served as a defense organization that fought anti-semitism in the united states.
Explains that arabs and britain shut down the recommendation, warning the united states of zionist goals. egypt, saudi arabia, syria, and lebanon signed a pledge to protect the arab position in palestine.
Analyzes how the jewish agency in jerusalem concluded that only a jewish state would be able to take in all of the jews from world war ii.
Explains that truman was not ready to get involved with the situation until he had complete cooperation from both sides. the british white paper showed the weakness of the jewish political party.
The rise of anti-semitic views under the nazis made survival challenging for the jews of Europe. Life is Beautiful directed by Roberto Benigni and Maus by Art Spiegelman present the Holocaust in different ways. Life is Beautiful uses comedy to show Guido’s effort to keep his son alive. While Maus uses Vladek’s application of industrial skills to keep his family alive. Both stories show the peoples effort to survive at all costs using the skill set that they have.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the rise of anti-semitic views under the nazis made survival challenging for the jews of europe. life is beautiful and maus by art spiegelman present the holocaust in different ways.
Analyzes how maus and life is beautiful show the horrors of the holocaust and the people's will to keep their children protected.
Compares how life is beautiful and maus show that people with skills survived longer than those without skills.
Analyzes how vladek and guido's efforts were not in vain because both their spouses and joshua survived. maus presented a nonfiction story and life is beautiful was ficional.
Recognition of Israel
World War II left Europe in ruins and devastated those who lived there, but nobody was more affected than the Jews. When the war ended, the U.S. and other countries revealed to the world the amount of torture and mistreatment the Jews suffered under Nazi control. Many wanted to help these suffering outcasts, so Jewish Zionists suggested the Jews be relocated to Palestine, where they could live in peace away from others(Devine, 1). Britain and President Truman felt sympathetic for the Jews, and decided to help them establish a new Jewish homeland in the Middle East. During the formation of Israel, the U.S. played a big role by establishing a committee, supporting U.N. and Jewish intentions, and recognizing Israel as a country.
In this essay, the author
Explains that the u.s. and other countries revealed to the world the amount of torture and mistreatment the jews suffered under nazi control.
Explains that the story of the state of israel began with abraham's promise to leave his homeland and create a model nation in the land of canaan.
Explains that president truman was a big supporter of zionist movements, since the united states denied many desperate jews citizenship to escape nazi brutality.
Explains how the league of nations intervened and put great britain in charge of the mandate for palestine. the white paper, established in 1939, stated palestine would not be a jewish or arab state, but an independent state.
Explains that the united states was agitated the mandate restricted jewish immigration, and complained to britain for allowing it to happen. britain formed the anglo-american committee of inquiry in 1945, to address the immigration issue in palestine.
Explains that the arab people were reluctant to allow jews into palestine, since peace needed to be kept in the area. the committee proposed that arabs and jews live together in one state, where neither had total power over.
Explains that the committees plan seemed to be the best solution to allowing jews to immigrate into palestine, so they asked the mandate of palestine to approve the plan.
Explains that the new plan failed again, as governments and high committees approved it, but many jews and arabs disagreed with it. when jews arrived in palestine, problems arose.
Narrates how the united nations special committee on palestine (unscop) came up with a partition plan to divide the city of jerusalem into two states, jewish and palestinians.
Analyzes how the uncop plan seemed like a sure success, but did the opposite of what britain and the u.s. hoped for. jewish reaction was split; some supported it because it held promise for their future, while others felt it was their right to control all of palestine.
Narrates how the jews took over political power of the area, which meant freedom to create their promised land. on may 14, 1948, at midnight, the state of israel became an official country.
Analyzes how the creation of israel had a profound effect on neighboring nations, and the arabs were not the only ones to attack israel.
Describes how the anglo-american inquiry committee tried to get jews into palestine by approval from the bma. truman supported the u.n. and jews, favoring their opinions.
The Vision for the Future of American Jewry in The Modern Age by Salo Baron
In this essay, the author
Analyzes salo baron's vision for the future of american jewry in "the modern age." he questions whether an outbreak of anti-semitism will eventually bring an end to jewish life in america or whether the american political system is such that that would be difficult.
Analyzes how baron warns america's jews that assimilation will not free them of their jewishness. he cites examples from the jewish past, including german jewry and the holocaust.
Analyzes baron's contention that american jewry needs leadership to shape the cultural, social, and religious future of diaspora life.
Proceeding from a simplistic perception of regional stability, Washington utilized the surrogate strategy to control the outcomes of regional interactions in the Middle East and chose Israel to play the role of regional surrogate. But Israel, in many cases, instead of maintaining regional stability on behalf of the US, served its own interests which were not always consistent with US interest in regional stability. The Israeli violations, however, were either condoned or even approved by the US administrations. These reactions comprised what this chapter addressed as a pro-Israel model of intervention.
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how washington used the surrogate strategy to control the outcomes of regional interactions in the middle east, and chose israel to play the role of a regional protector. israeli violations were condoned or even approved by the us administrations.
Analyzes how the pro-israel intervention represented the us foreign policy reaction when the violation to regional stability was committed by israel.
Analyzes how washington's reaction to the six-day-war and the volatile period that followed it was only post factum. washington ignored the israeli violation to regional stability and put no pressure on israelis to withdraw from the territories.
Explains that the us was expected to intervene in a decisive way to prevent israel from proceeding in its wmd plans, but it did not.
Argues that the pro-israel model was counter to us interests in securing regional stability.
Opines that no two countries will always have the same interests. there have been instances where american and israeli interests were at odds.
Concludes that israel was not much of an asset when it comes to maintaining dynamic stability or even preserving the status quo in the region and has repeatedly frustrated us efforts to deal more effectively with region’s problematic issues.
Opines that washington might find it easier to address middle east crises were its policies not constrained by the prior commitment to israel. israel looks first and foremost to its own interests.
Explains that us support for israel is a significant source of anti-americanism in the middle east. the "special relationship" with israel made us interests more magnetic targets for outraged groups.
Explains that us inactiveness in the face of israeli adventures was broken only once, namely, the suez crisis, when the us intervened to address the imbalances caused by the tripartite aggression against egypt