Zionism declares that “the Jews are more than a purely religious body, they are not only a race but also a nation” (Berkowitz 376). Theodor Herzl, the father of political Zionism, states, “We are a people- one people.” Both Herzl and Berkowitz have interesting key points about a Jewish State, the Jewish religion in general, and how to solve current issues in the religion. A State is formed by a social contract and is still being created today. Rousseau states, “The conditions of this contract are so precisely defined by the nature of the agreement that the slightest alterations would make them null and void. The consequence is that, even where they are not expressly stated, they are everywhere identical, and everywhere tacitly accepted and recognized.” States are mainly created by a nation struggling with social and political disputes. They are difficult to form because of opportunities for land. For example, most territories form because of breaking off from their mother countries. “We depend for sustenance on the nations who are our hosts, and if we had no hosts to support us we should die of starvation.” Herzl states that Jews have been faithfully repeating Anti-Semite’s words because of unjust accusations and the need to realize that the world is always changing and adding new properties.
Do you know the moral to the story of the tortoise and the hare? Is it slow and steady wins the race? Or is it that cockiness gets you nowhere? They are both correct but this is a good example of how a children’s fable, like interpretations of the bible, can easily be different from one another. Interpretations of the bible vary and occasionally get the message wrong, but this variation can be attributed differences of opinion in interpretation. Whether motivated by politics, social presuppositions, or theological differences the variation can paint a contrasting picture of Biblical information. Time plays a very large part in the variations of Biblical interpretation. The interpretation according to the rabbinic midrash is very different than interpretations according to modern Zionism or for that matter modern Feminism.
There are thousands of religions in this world, and of those, Hasidic Judaism is the most conservative. Throughout history Hasidism has not drifted from the rules and rituals of the 18th century. From the clothing, to the food, everything involved in Hasidic daily life is geared towards becoming closer to God. Around the world there are numerous Hasidic groups, and the largest population is in New York. Hasidic people live in small towns filled with members of the same group, and they all look towards their rebbe for guidance. The rebbe or the rabbi is the teacher of his followers and is responsible for inspiring his people. For Hasidic people everyday they must live by the 613 commandments of the Torah. Hasidic history, study, clothing, food, and communities prove that Hasidic Judaism is the most conservative and orthodox branch of religion for its time.
where Judaism is practiced that does not agree with Islam (Isseroff). This means that Palestine does not have sovereignty over this area where they feel Islamic culture is being threatened and they are now unable to contain within their borders (Abu-Amr). Also, Israel feels as if they have the right to be considered a state and that they are just as important and should be able to rule their own land without being attacked or not recognized as a state and to practice Jewish ideals (Metcalf). Arab countries feel as if the form of Israel, was a way to move away from normal Islamic culture which is another way that nationalism plays a part in the on-going conflict (Metcalf). Zionism plays a part in the Jewish people of Israel feeling as if
American Jews today identify themselves as Orthodox, Reform, Conservative, or Reconstructionist. These four movements in modern American Judaism are different in many aspects, but one must remember that even though there are differences in the different beliefs of the Jewish movements, that all Jews share a common bond of a history and a destiny. They are one people. These four movements are not considered denominations, but are differing philosophies. Many Jewish religious observances and practices cannot be easily put into a single particular movement because within each movement there is a wide diversity in custom, practice, and observance. These movements range from traditional to liberal and those in between.
Late into the 19th century, Zionism (a biblical name for Jerusalem) started to rise when Theodor Herzl published an article that concluded Jewish assimilation and emancipation could not work in Europe. It was this that started plans for the creation of a Jewish statehood. During this time, the population of Jews were spread out across different countries, and in each of these countries, they had represented a minority. Throughout this period, they had longed for a state in which they called Eretz Israel, the land of Israel. Herzl’s proposed solution was for the revival of a Jewish homeland where they could set up a state belonging to themselves. Following his publishings, the First Zionist Congress was held in Switzerland. The program state that “The aim of Zionism is to create for the Jewish people a homeland in Palestine secure by public law”. Much of the Jewish community at this point held mixed views about this movement but it was this time period of the late 19th ce...
When Hasidim, who belong to an ultra-pious movement within Orthodox Judaism, immigrated during the post World War ll era in large numbers to America, they sought to build a community similar to the European Shtetl culture to which they were accustomed. In the Shtetl they had lived a traditional and insular lifestyle. Hasidic leaders of the new immigrants founded communities that shunned contemporary Western Culture. Their successors continue to lead the mainstream Hasidic establishment with the same ideals. The only contact with society at large these communities accept is the contact that is necessary for them to nourish themselves.
The Jewish State was a book written by Herzl in 1895, which gave reasons for the Jewish population to move from Europe to either Argentina or Israel and make a new Jewish state of their own. Herzl thought the Jewish people had obtained a solid national identity but lacked a nation with a political system of their own. With their own Jewish State, the Jews could be free to practice their religion and culture without the fear of anti-Semitism. In The Jewish State he wrote. Herzl suggested a plan for political action in which they would acquire the Jewish State. He believed Jews trying to assimilate into European society were wasting their time, because the majority would always decide their role in society. As the anti-Semitism in Europe grew, it became clear that the only way to solve the Jewish problem would be to create their own Jewish sta...
Since the inception of an Israeli nation-state in 1948, violence and conflict has played a major role in Israel’s brief history. In the Sixty-One year’s Israel has been a recognized nation-state, they have fought in 6 interstate wars, 2 civil wars, and over 144 dyadic militarized interstate disputes (MIDs) with some display of military force against other states (Maoz 5). Israel has been involved in constant conflict throughout the past half century. Israel’s tension against other states within the Middle East has spurred vast economic, social, and political unity that has fostered a sense of nationalism and unity in Israel not seen in most other states. Over the next several pages I will try and dissect the reasons for why the nation state of Israel has been emerged in constant conflict and how this conflict has helped foster national unity and identity among the people of Israel.
Theodor Herzl is notably credited with being the father of modern day Zionism, an ideology that ultimately led to the establishment of a national homeland for Jews in Palestine. The concept of a national homeland for the Jewish people was by no means a new idea conceived in Herzl’s time, in fact the idea of return to Zion is predated to biblical times. For over two millennia the Jewish people had persevered through an overwhelming amount of adversity, bouncing from one catastrophic disturbance to the next. Ironically these tragic episodes in Jewish history are what helped stimulate an unshakable social bond unlike any other in the world. So why does Herzl have the distinction of being the patriarch of “Modern Day Zionism”? More importantly why did he succeed where so many before him failed? It is known that Herzl thoroughly understood the prevailing political sentiments of the period, and cleverly yet relentlessly utilized what ever means were available to him in order to promote the case for his vision of a Zionist state in a way his predecessors were unable to. Most of Herzl’s thoughts were based on keen observation and understanding of politics and law. For the most part he felt that while his predecessors were genuinely compassionate in seeking a possible solution for the ‘Jewish Problem’, he noted that they focused primarily on particular segments of Jewish society (religious, the poor, the oppressed etc…) instead of the whole inclusive. At no time does Herzl publically point a finger at the failure of others but stresses the importance of observing and learning from past mistakes. Undoubtedly Theodor Herzl was greatly influenced by many Zionist thinkers whose ideas he incorporated into his vision of the Jewish State. Two pr...