With large advances in immunology in the 1960’s xenotransplantation reemerged. At first it was not very successful for example in 1984 a baboon heart was transplanted into new born infant who had hypoplastic left heart syndrome the child lived for 20 days after the surgery. Through the advances in Xenotransplantation there were many obstacles including preventing hyperacute rejection, preventing acute vascular rejection, facilitating immune accommodation, inducing immune tolerance, preventing the spread of viruses from animal to human and addressing ethical issues. Still the largest concern of xenotransplantation is cross-species infections. A third of people on an organ waiting list die waiting for the organ this is why xenotransplantation is so important there are plenty of healthy animals that humans can harvest.
However, use of pig xenografts is associated with major immunologic barriers, resulting in Hyper Acute Rejection (HAR) or Acute Vascular Rejection (AVR) when transplanted into a human recipient as humans have naturally occurring antibodies against pig cells. To resolve this issue genetically engineered pigs have been designed to reduce the expression of various immunogenic substances. Further the graft is given a break from attack when ci... ... middle of paper ... ... date. By contrast, the transplantation of baboon livers and chimpanzee kidneys into humans had resulted in deaths due to illnesses not related to organ failure. But at the same time it is not possible to apply this result / estimation to all procedures as the precise risk will vary from one procedure to another, depending on a range of factors which need to be observed over a long term.
“According to the General Accounting Office, more than half of the prescription drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) between 1976 and 1985 caused serious side effects that later caused the drugs to be either relabeled or removed from the market. Drugs app... ... middle of paper ... ... are many other ways to get the same results as humans receive from animal experiments. These methods are viewed as more moral, practical, effective, and less expensive, why wouldn’t we use these methods? By using these methods, scientists were able to invent aspirin and certain types of insulin (Williams 3). Although animals may seem like the ideal specimen for experimenting with, these experiments are untrustworthy and can cause unknown side effects.
Xenotransplantation Physicians today are faced with a growing list of patients awaiting transplants for organs that have failed, but there are not enough donors to meet these needs. Countries all over the world have a “human organ shortage” and the waiting lists for organ transplants only seem to grow longer (Melo 427). In the United States 62,000 patients needed a kidney, liver, or pancreatic transplant in the year 2001. Xenotransplantation, which refers to the transplantation of organs, cells, or tissues from animal species into human beings, has been heralded as a promising technology that will help us save more lives and lessen the dire shortage of transplantable organs. Organs from pigs, goats, monkeys, chimpanzees, and baboons have been used in xenotransplant experiments conducted so far.
Xenotransplantation The topic I would like to talk about today is called xenotransplantation. If you haven’t ever heard about xenotransplantation that’s okay, a lot of people haven’t. As you know many of the people who need organ donations need them because of new and old health issues. The worldwide demand for organs far surpasses the supply. A study done by the United Network for Organ Sharing in 2004 found that over one hundred thousand patients could have benefited from an organ transplant but only twenty-nine thousand were available.
There has to be a change. The best way to stop this and increase the supply of organs available is to create a system in which the donors are provided some type of payment. In a live debate by NPR over the placement of this system, “those who favored buying and selling organs went from 44 percent to 60 percent. But those opposed inched up only 4 points, from 27 to 31 percent” (npr.com). Therefore, being able to save thousands of lives through the legalization of organ marketing overshadows the risks that come with it.
The in vitro fertilization procedure goal is to retrieve and fertilize enough eggs in order to establish a good pregnancy. Most often, not all of those embryos are used during treatment; some are frozen for later use. Other embryos are donated, used for research, or discarded and sometimes destroyed by selective pregnancy reduction. Any of these alternatives raise a number of ethical issues. Since 1970, more than 500,000 frozen embryos are stored with 20,000 embryos extra each year and most of them will not be used (Clark, 2009, p. 2).
A study performed by "" showed that miscarried fetuses were only useable for treating patients 3.8 percent of the time (). Doctors in favor of stem cell research believe that allowing the use of aborted fetuses will speed up research leading to breakthroughs that can save many thousands of future lives. Stem cells from bone marrow. One of the stronger arguments against the use of aborted fetuses is that an alternative source would be simpler and more efficient source of stem cells.
Millions of animals would have died if it were not for vaccines for diseases like rabies and the hepatitis virus. Animals at times, make better research subjects than humans. An example is that mice only live two or three years so researchers can observe effects of genetic manipulation over the whole life of the mouse while they would not be able to do that with a human. If you are scared that an animal might get hurt while being used in animal research, do not be. There are two reasons why they will not be hurt.
It takes place over minutes, hours, and days, giving them a precious opportunity to develop treatments to halt much of the damage. Most of the new remedies are not yet available, but an explosion of research in the last five to ten years has convinced scientists that some of them will work (8). Guided by fabulous results in preventing permanent damage from stroke and other injuries to the central nervous system in rats and other animals, researchers around the world have launched scores of trials in humans (12). However, many promising new therapies are sitting on the shelf because of a lack of money and other resources necessary to conduct large, lengthy, and expensive studies to conclusively show that a new drug or treatment really works in people. The requirement for safety and efficacy can be frustrating, especially for badly needed treatments that are very promising, but such caution is necessary.