Xenograft Bone Transplantation Method

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Introduction The term ‘bone’ refers to a group of materials which plays a significant role in the human body (Bauer, Thomas W. MD, PhD and Muschler 2000). They provide the physical support which forms the exoskeleton of the vertebrates. Though they function to move, support and protect the delicate parts of the body they also function as the reservoirs of ions and lipids and they also serve to yield the blood cells in the marrow cavities (Lutton, Read and Trau 2001) Bone structure Bones are composite materials with highly complex structure made up of fibrous proteins, type 1 collagen which is surrounded and made harder by the presence of calcium phosphates (hydroxyapatite, Hap(Ca10(PO4)6OH2)) which acts as a strong filling.(Currey 1932). Bone is made up of nano-composite structure which provides the excellent mechanical properties. Plate shaped crystals of carbonated apatite are formed in the collagen framework. The fibril is filled with crystals formed in layers. The fibrils are almost always present as bundles or aligned arrays and these can be arranged in a variety of motifs (Weiner, Traub and Wagner 1999). This forms the basis for the formation of the different types of bones. Bone impairment The uninterrupted growth in the age of population has lead to continuous conditions where the bones are target of injury causing severe damage to the individual. Bone loss is a result of structural deterioration of the bone material which in turn contributes to the bone’s vulnerability to fractures (Elden and Haugeberg 2010). Moreover bones are prone to damage by numerous bone diseases like bone tumour, Hypophosphates, Metabolic bone disease, Osteoarthritis, etc… Although blood has the highest rate of transfer bone transp... ... middle of paper ... ...84. SHEGARFI, H., and REIKERAS, O., 2009. Review artice: bone transplantation and immune response. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, 17 (2), 206-210. SLONAKER, M., and GOSWAMI, T., 2004. Wear mechanisms in ceramic hip implants. Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances, 13 (2), 94-105. SWETHA, M., SAHITHI, K., MOORTHI, A., SRINIVASAN, N., RAMASAMY, K. and SELVAMURUGAN, N., 2010. Biocomposites containing natural polymers and hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 47 (1), 1-4. WEINER, S., TRAUB, W. and WAGNER, H.D., 1999. Lamellar Bone: Structure–Function Relations. Journal of Structural Biology, 126 (3), 241-255. ZIPFEL, G.J., GUIOT, B.H. and FESSLER, R.G., 2003. bone grafting:bone grafting physiology [online]. medscape. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/449880_3 [Accessed 06/02 2010].
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