From 1047 onwards, William successfully dealt with rebellion inside Normandy involving his kinsmen and threats from neighbouring nobles, including attempted invasions by his former ally King Henry I of France in 1054 (the French forces were defeated at the Battle of Mortemer) and 1057. William's military successes and reputation helped him to negotiate his marriage to Mathilda, daughter of Count Baldwin V of Flanders. At the time of his invasion of England, William was a very experienced and ruthless military commander, ruler and administrator who had unified Normandy and inspired fear and respect outside his duchy. William's claim to the English throne was based on his assertion that, in 1051, Edward the Confessor had promised him the throne (he was a distant cousin) and that Harold II - having sworn in 1064 to uphold William's right to succeed to that throne - was therefore a usurper. Furthermore, William had the support of Emperor Henry IV and papal approval.
The Hundred Years War shifted to the favour of the English, at least during the first third of the war, in what most call, Edward's war. The English inheritance of the Duchy of Aquitaine began when Eleanor of Aquitaine married King Henry II in 1152. Edward III inherited it when he became king in 1327. Edward also had the right to lay claim to the French throne when King Charles IV died in 1328. Charles was the last remaining son of Phillip IV, all three of Phil... ... middle of paper ... ...as Edward's great strength, as was his skill in choosing ground and deploying units to suit it".
William was born in 1028 and was the only son of Duke Robert I of Normandy, who later died on a voyage to Jerusalem. After his father’s death in 1035, he was knighted at the age of fifteen and the Norman magnates accepted William as duke even though he was an illegitimate child; he was actually known as William the Bastard. This caused William serious problems later in life and he had to overcome several massive obstacles, one of which was surviving numerous rebellions. William relied heavily on King Henry I of France and his mother for protection. He faced substantial difficulty maintaining control over Normandy, but by his early twenties, he emerged a powerful leader.
The events leading up to the Siege of Orleans were mainly victories for the English. The French were attacking land which King Edward III, the king of England, owned in France. “He declares himself King of France, arguing that he can legally claim the French throne through the line of descent via his mother, Isabella of France.” (Kip Wheeler) . King Edward of England was not accepted to be king of France. He sailed his ship into the waterway between France and England and rams his ship into French ships in an attempt to gain control of the waterway.
The conflict was temporarily resolved by ceding the fiefdom of Gascony to the king, but this deal did not last long and in 1337 Edward renewed his claim. The first battle was a exceedingly decisive naval battle at Sluys which effectively destroyed the French navy. This was followed up, six years later, by the famous Battle of Cressy, where a small force of English archers routed a large French army, including over 1000 fully armed knights. The victory at Cressy so demoralized the French that they were unable to raise the subsequent siege of Calais, and one of the largest and most important port cities on the coast of France fell into English hands, where it remained for over 200 years. For ten years after securing Calais.
After his invasion and being crowned king of England, William began to dig into England like a tick and his Norman culture spread. William had pulled off an amazing feat through his invasion in England and as well as his earlier life when he rose to power in Normandy which allowed him to embark on such rigorous campaign. The Duke of Normandy, couldn’t have chosen a better time in which to invade England. King Edward the Confessor of England had died January of 1066 with no heir to take his place, and William’s distant family claims to the throne were an opportunity to declare himself king. With the support of the Church and an army of around 7,000, William landed his arm... ... middle of paper ... ... had animal hides laid about as an insult towards William’s mother.
During this trip Norman writers maintain that he swore to support William's claim to the English throne. Yet when Edward died childless in January 1066, Harold was himself crowned king. Furious, William decided on war. He landed in England on 28th September, establishing a bridgehead near Hastings. Harold met him from Stamford Bridge, where he had just defeated Harald Hardraade.
About a hundred years later, in the seventh century, Charlemagne’s father, Pepin III, created the Carolingian dynasty under the Merovingian dynasty and overcame Childeric III, the Merovingian king. Now, the sole ruler was the Carolingian dynasty, which had always been in a position of more power. By doing this, he ensured his sons, Charlemagne and Carloman, a chance at the throne. The borders of this new dynasty were, at the time, France, Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands. In addition, Pepin allied with Pope Stephen II, and... ... middle of paper ... ...ed construction projects (e.g.
A shot time later John II died. John II son did not honor the Treaty, which resulted in another battle with England (Keegan 79). King Henry IV was the great-grandson of Edward III who also thought that he was entitled to rule France and so the battles continued. In 1387, Henry IV had three sons one of which was named Prince Hal. Price Hal was groomed to be king and continued the fight with France for territory as his father and grandfather had done.
In 1799 Napoleon and his colleagues overtook the French government and established power. He revised the constitution in 1802 to make himself consul for life, and then again in 1804 to make himself Emperor of France. Soon after Napoleon came to power he restructured the administration, simplified the court system, and began monitoring the schooling system; French law was also put in the Napoleon Code which guaranteed the rights and liberties that were gained through the revolution. Napoleons violent behavior caused war with Britain to break out, who allied with Russia and Austria. Prussia later allied themselves with Russia; creating a huge alliances against France and Napoleon.