Jermy, T. van Loon, JJA. (1998) Insect-plant biology. From physiology to evolution. Chapman and Hall, London  Thompson, JN. (1999) The raw material for coevolution.
Once bee pollen was defined in legislation as food, the nutritional value of this product became important. It contents high concentration of reducing sugars, essential amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and abundant in proteins and vitamins (Campos, 2010). Enzyme activity of pollen in honeybee (Apis cerena Fab.) reported to find the source of enzyme in Indian honey (Wakhle, Phadke and Nair, 1983). Honeybees collect pollen to fulfil their nutritional requirement, because pollen provides bees with proteins, minerals, lipids, vitamins and many other nutrients.
Bait-preference tests for the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(5), 1083-1088. Beckers, R., Goss, S., Deneubourg, J. L., & Pasteels, J. M. (1989). Colony size, communication, and ant foraging strategy. Psyche, 96(3-4), 239-256.
"Roles of organic soil amendments and soil organisms in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: a review ." Bioresource Technology Volume 74. Issue 1.August 2000 Pages 35-47 . 03/27/07 5&_user=2532480&_coverDate=08%2F31% 2F2000&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000057783&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=2532480&md5=0f8465d8d83ce62f9ccf3fa585e54c76>. Zasada, I.A.
Morrison WH, Akin DE (1990) Water soluble reaction products from ozonolysis of grasses. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1990, 38, 678–681. Mosier N, Hendrickson R, Brewer M, Ho N, Sedlak M, Dreshel R (2005a) Industrial scale-up of pH-controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn fiber for fuel ethanol production.
Scientists determined the arrival of these ants is by the unloading of cargos at the port of Mobile, Ala i... ... middle of paper ... ...e honeybees. D. Ants as bio-indicators In terms of numerical abundance, size and species richness, ants are a prominent group in many terrestrial ecosystems. Ants also occupy higher tropic levels and often used specialized niches; suggest that they may be good bio-indicator of various environmental parameters (Majer, 1983). Touyama (2002) revealed that hypogeal ants were useful and convenient bio indicators of soil faunal richness, based on the data obtained in Hiroshima Prefecture. Ant species richness significantly correlated with three soil faunal variables: number of orders, degree of nature richness and abundance in lower-altitudinal area.
In Plant Hormones: Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, P. J. Davies, ed., Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 448–485. Taiz, Lincoln, and Eduardo Zieger. "Gibberellins: Regulators of Plant Height." Plant Physiology.
American Naturalist 180(6): 744-750. doi:10.1086/668009 Robinson, E. J. H. (2009). Flexible task allocation and the organization of work in ants. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1677), 4373-4380. Tripet, F., &Nonacs, P. (2004).Foraging for work and age-based polyethism: The roles of age and previous experience on task choice in ants. Ethology, 110(11), 863-877. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2004.01023.x
Phytopathology 87:656-660. Oyarzun, P. J., Ordones, M. E., and Forbes, G. A. 1997. First report of Phytophthora infestans A2 mating type in Equador. Plant Dis.
Host plants are a key part of the lifecycle of many plant feeding insects such as Chrysomelid beetles. In order to feed on a plant an insect needs the ability to safely process or excrete all the secondary chemicals the plants produce, often specifically for the purpose of deterring predators. These chemical combinations have resulted in different insect species only being able to feed on specific plant groups or even individual species, and has caused adaptive radiation within the insects. Typically this will result in a taxonomic group of insects feeding on a single taxonomic group of plants, however there are exceptions where unrelated plants will have similar chemistries through evolutionary convergence and can be fed on by a common grouping of insects. (Jaenike 1990) The chemicals can also influence the reproductive potential of the insects feeding on them in a number of different ways based on the influences of sequestered compounds.