According to Miller’s theory, young boy’s who do not have a father figure growing up will turn to gangs to achieve a sense of masculinity within each other. Girls will turn to all-male gangs to have a sense of father figure as well. Because of the masculinity is missing out of children’s lives, the gang life tends to attract them because of the power and respect that comes along with being in a gang. (Delinquency In society, p.180-181) There are many theories that explain why people join gangs. There are also many contributing factors to include when explaining why people join gangs, especially adolescents. A few theories that support why adolescents join gangs are: the strain theory, the general strain theory, the social control theory, the differential association theory, the labeling theory, the rational choice theory, the social learning theory, and the routine activity theory. (Delinquency in Society) According to the strain theory, juveniles may experience difficulty in obtaining things in life and they have a tendency to find other ways and means of getting what they...
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Gangs have been in existence since the beginning of the Roman Empire. There were speeches made by Roman orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero, which references groups of men who constantly fought and disrupted Roman politics (Curry, 2013). The history of street gangs in the United States begins with their emergence on the East Coast around 1783, as the American Revolution ended. Though many believe the best available evidence suggests that the more serious street gangs likely did not emerge until the early part of the nineteenth century (Sante, 1991). Although our country has had their share of feared gangs like in the 1980’s with the turf war between the Bloods and Crips, back in the 17th and 18th century the Mohocks of Georgian, England were one of the most feared gangs. What draws juveniles to the gang lifestyle? Many people will say that most gang members are children from impoverished communities, single family homes where there was no father present, or maybe there is a more psychological/sociological answer? By appearance and presence most gangs cause fear, crime, and disillusionment in the communities they occupy. Throughout history joining a gang has been perceived as a life without any reward, yet by joining this lifestyle many juveniles are able to gain the needed stability and security in their lives.
Even though gang violence is not a new phenomenon there has been a noticeable lack of Canadian based research done on this topic (Gordon, 2000; Varma-Joshi, Baker, and Tanaka, 2004). Although there is limited knowledge about gang violence, research shows that males are more likely to engage in gang activities (Gordon, 2000; Jemmott, B., Jemmott, S., Hines, and Fong, 2001). There are several factors that contribute to why many youths become involved in gangs. One of the main reasons why visible minority youth become submerged in gangs is because they are searching for a sense of identity and belonging (Gordon, 2000; Meloff and Silverman, 1992; Nodwell and Guppy, 1992; Fantino and Colak, 2001). Gordon (2000) finds that, “they want to belong to a friendly, supportive group that include their friends or close relatives and this includes a desire to be with individuals from the same cultural and ethnic group; gang members felt ethnically marginalized” (pg. 51). The reason why minorities are attracted to gangs is because they create a family setting which embraces their differences as opposed to being judged on their differences by mainstream society.
Chapter 4 describes various theories that provide explanations for the existence of gangs throughout the nation today. Moreover the chapter examines from the earliest theories of gangs to the most recent ones. Along with the other theories described in the chapter, Social Disorganization Theory is the central theory of study. Among other theories, Social disorganization is the most important; it was developed by the Chicago School. The theory goes on to further explain and link crime rates to the neighborhood’s macro-level (ecological) characteristics. The theory’s focus is that ethnic heterogeneity, low socioeconomic status, and residential mobility reduce the capacity of community residents to control crime.
Hanser and Gomila (2015) states, “For many younger juveniles, adult gang members serve as role models whose behavior is to be emulated as soon as possible to become full-pledge gang-bangers because of the prestige, respect, and sense of belonging that the gang-banger role provides them” (341). Other reasons why female juveniles join gangs was due to lack of family support and various types of violence in their lives. Hanser and Gomila (2015) noted “The involvement of juvenile females in sexual activities, substance abuse, and violence was clearly related to membership in gangs” (p. 348). Sexual abuse was among the primary reasons why female juveniles join gangs. Female juveniles living in urban ghettos are more likely to be sexually abused, and they join gangs as a way of coping and to escape the realities of poverty. Female juveniles will experience more hardships as compared to make juveniles, before they are fully received as full pledge gang members. As previously stated, sexual abuse was among the primary reasons why female juveniles join gangs; however, sexual abuse does not end there because it continues to occur throughout their gang life (Hanser & Gomila,
Gang membership and in a broader sense, crime and deviance, are social problems which have plagued every society and do not appear to be eradicated anytime in the foreseeable future. However, sociologists and other academics have conjured up explanations like the strain theory, born criminal theory, phrenology and craniometry which have aided law enforcers in their deterrence efforts. According to the structural strain theory, gang membership increase with the presence of a discrepancy between means and goals. The government could open up more avenues for youths to develop their talents. For instance, a college for the arts would serve as a mean to the goals of youths who are artistic but not academically inclined. That being said, more has to be done to prevent youths from falling under the subculture of gangsterism
Once we finished watching the documentary street gangs of Los Angeles two theories were most prevalent in my mind for why there was gang formation in that area. The first being Travis herschi’s “social bonds”. Second being Walter miller’s “focal concerns”. Social bond theory is not a crime causation theory but a pro social behavior theory that helps explain deviance. This theory identified four social bonds that promote adherence to society’s laws and values. The four bonds being: attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief. If there was any weakness in any of these four areas would be an explain for the cause of delinquency. Focal concerns theory is different than many other theories because it is not the rejection of middle-class values but the reasons for the behavior comes directly from the lower-class values themselves. Miller identified six areas in which lower-class males give their attention t: trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, luck, and autonomy. The more that an individual would participate in one of these areas for more respect they would gain.
...asons are for protection, for profit, to gain a family or friends, to join family or friends already associated with the gang, to gain means for something, or for retribution and power. A gang creates relationships or a feeling of family, and most important a new social bond filled with ties of attachment, commitment, beliefs, and involvement (Siegel 2012). It gives individuals, especially the younger ones, a hope for the future, a family dynamic, a form of means and income, and a place to create ties and bonds. Especially if their ties to conventional society are weak because they are not involved, they do not have many commitments in school or work, or they are not attached to his or her family or friends. Humans are social creatures, and this type of group allows humans to interact with people who have similar lifestyles, beliefs, values, needs, and experiences.
...getting sexually transmitted diseases and infections, are at risk of getting beaten by the leader or other groups members, as well as being arrested. http://www.kidshelpphone.ca/Teens/InfoBooth/Violence-and-Abuse/Gangs/Girls-in-Gangs.aspx. Males in gangs are commonly abused, neglected, discriminated against, and suffer from racism at one point in their lives. The majority of youth gang members, 24% are African American. http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/gngs-cnd/index-eng.aspx. Some male gang members of members of a minority or have recently immigrated to the country or certain area of the country. They often lack another male figure that they can look up to and have as a positive role model and associate themselves with other delinquent peers. The feel that they are unrecognized by others and think that they do not fit in with the majority of people.
However one of the most crucial factor and one that the paper tries to elaborate on is the need to belong to a group with the right connections that mimic health relationships. This strategically ties in with elements of having problems at home. If the adolescents do not feel the attachment from home, they are likely to be attracted to what gangs offer as an alternative. Where children do not have the right kind of supervision when growing up and therefore feel detached and unprotected from those in their family; the gangs offer the level of connection and protection that these adolescents will be
Gangs originated in the mid 1800’s in the cardinal direction using it as a method to defend themselves against outsiders.The idea of gangs became populous, powerful, and a broad influence. But like all powers, they tend to corrupt and recognizes violence as a way of getting what they want faster than other methods.They turn violence into fun, profit, and control.Creating a situation that affects youth in today’s society.
I must admit that this class and it's statistics continue to shock me! As my son is of a age and has certain risk factors that would make him succeptable to gang membership. I was shocked to learn that only 1% of the population are gang members. That's 1 in every 100 people.(Pyrooz, 2013). I believe that this is definitely based on the neighborhood you live in and the culture you are brought up around. While other studies have proven the gang rates to be more they all conclude that gang activity peaks at around age 15. The National Gang Center reports that 50 to 67% of gang members are 18 or older. While gang involvement usually lasts 2 years or less adolescense is a time where individuals are finding and learning who they are and want to
According to the social disorganization perspective gang members do drugs because they are forced into a substance. Drug offences are a common substance that is used and abused in gangs. Most people and kids that do drugs are because of peer pressure. Others reasons why gang members do drugs are because the environment that they are in forces the to do drugs to fit in.
One of the reasons young people join street gangs is because of neighborhood disadvantages. A theory that can contribute to why young people might join street gangs is Social Disorganization Theory. Social Disorganization theory assumes that “delinquency emerges in neighborhoods where neighborhood relation and social institutions have broken down and can no longer maintain effective social controls (Bell, 2007).” Social Disorganization contributes to residential instability and poverty, which affects interpersonal relationships within the community and opens opportunities for crimes to be committed. The break down of neighborhood relation and social institutions create a higher likely hood that young people will affiliate with deviant peers and get involved in gangs. When there is lack of social controls within a neighborhood the opportunity to commit deviance increases and the exposure to deviant groups such as street gangs increase. Which causes an increase in the chances of young people joining street gangs. If social controls are strong remain strong within a neighborhood and/or community the chances of young people committing crime and joining gangs decreases.
Attitudes, meaning how we as people respond to a subject, values, what we perceive is right and wrong, and beliefs play a major role in what brings youngsters into gangs. How does one develop a "gang attitude" to begin with? To answer this we must look at the culture. The values we Americans tend to have, make the alternative life style very appealing, this in conjunction with the glorified gang life style portrayed through the lyrics of the "Gangsta" rap artists all influence the young impressionable mind. This may make the child feel a sense of power, identity, or family, reflecting on the child's attitude. Also one must look at the neighborhood. A child can turn a corner and buy cocaine, see a gang war being played out, etc. It is obvious that the child cannot help but be influenced by this.
Gang violence is a major problem in our society today. If nothing is done soon, gang violence could take place in our neighborhoods. MW Klein, a gang researcher, says that gangs are an aggregation of youths who perceive themselves as distinct, and that are viewed as distinct by the community. Klein also states that the gangs call forth a consistently negative image of themselves through their actions (Klein). To those involved in gangs however, gang membership provided a youth means of attempting to consolidate their gender identities (Douglas). Most of the early American street gangs have historically been ethnically based. Early gangs were mainly Irish, Polish, or Italian (Klein).