“Neanderthals (or Neandertals) are our closest extinct human relatives. There is some debate as to whether they were a distinct species of the Homo genus (Homo Neanderthalensis) or a subspecies of Homo sapiens. Our well-known, but often misunderstood, fossil kin lived in Eurasia 200,000 to 30,000 years ago, in the Pleistocene Epoch.” (Live Science) The Neanderthals had a very similar appearance to human, although they were “shorter and stockier with angled cheekbones, prominent brow ridges, and wide noses.” (Live
Human trunk and limb bones of Homo antecessor, recovered from the Ran Doling site, in the Sierra de Atapuerca have been dated at about 780,000 old and are said to represent the last common ancestor for Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. Living humans have on ... ... middle of paper ... ...l between 40,000 and 80,000 years old Anthropologists date modern human fossils from the same area at between 92,000 and 101,000 years. With the arrival in Europe of modern humans, with an advanced and sophisticated technology 40,000years ago, Neanderthals started to vanish. Around 35,000 years ago temperatures started to decline and the most recent Neanderthal remains are found south in isolated seaside caves in Spain. Some tools are 29,000 years old.
It all started when the first Neanderthal fossil to get a lot of attention was found in 1856 in Dusseldorf, Germany, due to it being the full being, rather than a few scattered bones (Walter, 102). Another skull soon after was found in Maba, China that had the same Neanderthal similarities. However, not much archaeological work has been done in the Far East. Aiello, an Archaeologist, states, “[He has] no doubt that Neanderthals could have migrated farther to the east— To Mongolia or China… There would have been nothing to stop them.” The Neanderthals took advantage of a warm period 125,000 years ago while migrating. They ended up getting as far as Siberia.
A common ancestor between the neanderthals and homo sapiens is not all that shocking considering the similarities both share, but there are also distinct differences. The neanderthal was much shorter and stockier than the average human, males averaging a height of five foot five
The fossils are dated between 154,000 and 160,000 years ago.i The fossils were dated radioisotopically.ii Since the fossils are the oldest known fossils of modern people, it is probable that these hominids represent the immediate ancestors of humans that are anatomically modern. Tim D. White’s (et al) article “Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia” describes the discovery of the Herto fossils and the research of the artifacts in great detail. The new discoveries raise many questions about the origin of modern man. Tim D. White, the project’s director claims that the Herto fossils prove that... ... middle of paper ... ...ww.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v423/n6941/ful/nature01670_fs.html vii White, T.D. et al.
The Neanderthals are classified as an extinct subspecies of modern humans known as Homo sapiens Neanderthals, or as a separate human species called the Homo neanderthalensis. Both, the modern human and Neanderthal share some features and differ in others Neanderthals represent one of the most complex early human cultures. They were a rugged people with complex social and material lives. They lived under very rough environm... ... middle of paper ... ...gardless if they interbreed or not with modern humans, Neanderthal DNA is 99.7 percent identical to present-day human DNA. DNA study showed that most humans have a little Neanderthal in them, at least 1 to 4 percent of a person's genetic makeup.
The ancestral lines of Neanderthals and modern humans is split roughly about 800,000 years ago, making them our closest relatives in the hominid ancestry. Neanderthals inhabited Europe and parts of the Western Asia before going extinct around 30,000 years ago. Neanderthals made and used a range of tools, they were able to control fire, make and wore clothing, were very skilled hunters of large animals however also ate plant foods, they lived in shelters, and occasionally made symbolic or ornamental objects, which no previous hominid species, had ever practiced this representative and complex conduct. Over this essay we will be covering some elemental information on Neanderthals, their differences and similarities anatomically with modern humans, along with their differences in behavior, and finally giving some possible implications for the timing of the development of culture. As the earliest extinct human relatives to become known to science, the Homo neanderthalensis have snatched a relatively iconic influence in human evolutionary investigations.
“The name Neanderthal (or Neandertal) derives from the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf, Germany, where quarrymen unearthed portions of a human skeleton from a cave in 1856” (www.britnnica.com). Homo sapiens which in latin means “wise men” Homo sapiens is the species to where all modern human beings belong to. Homo sapiens is a rare species reason being it is one of several species grouped into the genus Homo, but it is the only one that is not extinct. ”The name Homo sapiens was applied in 1758 by the father of modern biological classification (see taxonomy), Carolus Linnaeus. It had long been known that human beings physically resemble the primates more closely than any other known living organisms, but at the time it was a daring act to classify human beings within the same framework used for the rest of nature” (www.britannica.com).
There is a lot of controversy over whether or not they actually interbred. Morphological features of present-day humans and anatomically modern human’s fossils have been the evidence that is for and against a genetic exchange between Neanderthals and the ancestors of present-day humans. DNA sequence data from present-day humans is also evidence that Neanderthals have made a genetic contribution to present-day humans (Green 1). Detecting signals of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern human ancestors can be challenging because the two groups share a common ancestor within the last 500,000 years. This is not any more concrete than the nuclear DNA sequence variation of present-day humans.
The Neanderthal, or Homo Neanderthalensis were a subspecies of humans, found in the Neander River in Germany, which they are named after. It is thought they went extinct around 40,000 to 28,000 years ago. The remains of Neanderthal have been located throughout much of Northern and western Asia as well as Western Europe. They are typically classified as a separate lineage of Homo Sapiens, which separated around 600,000 years ago. Neanderthals were closely related to modern humans (Homo Sapiens Sapiens), with DNA of around 99.5% the same.