In the journal article When Familiarity Breeds Accuracy: Cultural Exposure and Facial Emotion Recognition by Hillary Anger Elfenbein and Nalini Ambady, they discuss an experiment where photographs of American and Chinese individuals showing different kind of facial expressions that outline their current state of emotion were presented to American and Chinese judges. “… The photographs of American facial expression were judged more accurately and quickly than were the photographs of Chinese facial expressions. This is likely due to differences in the methods that the researchers used for creating these sets of stimulus materials. Whereas Ekman and Friesen (1976) created their American photographs with the goal of portraying intense versions of prototypical facial expressions that would be highly recognizable, by contrast Wang and Markham (1999) created their Chinese photographs with the goal of eliciting situationally appropriate facial expressions that would be relatively natural. These differences in the method of posing the facial expressions likely led to American expressions that were more intense but less authentic than the Chinese expressions….
This dimension of intercultural communication varies greatly from society to society and can often lead to difficulties in communication. Ho... ... middle of paper ... ...explicit verbal communication in favor of reading facial expressions, posture, or the speed of the interaction in order to communicate. For the Chinese, “contracts are not considered as binding…as the trust between those involved” (p. 287). Conversely, American negotiators are focused on achieving maximum economic gain and view socialization during the negotiation process as inefficient and unnecessary. The distinction between US American low-context and Chinese high-context is easily demonstrated by the following description of American communication: The American way of life, by contrast, affords little room for the cultivation of ambiguity.
However, asking people to complete them in a closed environment would problematize their responses. People would want to answer in a way to make themselves look better, than truthfully, because they are being closely analysed. By using qualitative analysis people can speak truthfully because the questions aren’t controlled, they are open-ended. Although it is difficult to analyse the types of words that promote racism in newspapers, the interviewer could direct the participant in the right direction in the unstructured interviews. This would make the results valid and the coding sheet would back this up.
As pragmatics is the study of understanding the meaning of words in relation to the context, flouting on an intentional and unintentional basis may lead to miscommunication or misunderstanding. Due to the nature of email communication, emails are vulnerable to pragmatic conventions such as the Gricean conversational maxims being flouted. Thus exposing emails to be a common denominator for misunderstandings, and a sound understanding of the pragmatic conventions may significantly cut down the number of incidents that occur.
Understanding more than one language has positive effects on the brain’s ability to think. In comparison to multilingual individuals, monolingual English speakers are at a considerable disadvantage when it comes to learning, cultural awareness, and effectiveness in global affairs. When involved in global affairs with another country, it is beneficial to be able to understand and speak the same language. Being monolingual severely hampers an individual 's ability to negotiate and be involved in global affairs. It was published by a website for higher education that, “At the risk of schematizing his account too severely, this means: more Arabic for national security and more Mandarin, Hindi, and en passant, Korean for the economy” (Berman).
However, the ability to speak English with correct pronunciation and intonation is important as it will directly affect the appropriate communication in conversation. The phonology of English will be strongly influenced by Mandarin, which is usually used in the home environment by Chinese (Phoon, 2010). Some English words consist of long vowels and short vowels. If people mispronounce the word, then it will lead to misunderstanding and miscommunication. According to Zhao (1995), Chinese speakers tend to reduce the contrast between long and short vowels in English, and diphthongs are like long vowels, thus Chinese-influenced diphthongs will also be short.
According to Lee & Sukoco (2010), these three aspects... ... middle of paper ... ...nteresting finding is that the fluency in the host-country language worsened the effects of role conflict on adjustment (Shaffer, Harrison, & Gilley, 1999). Although a business conversation may be conducted in English, people may certainly think in their own language according to their own cultural norms, which may not be fully understood. Another research said that, corporate language training is part of expatriate preparations (Hayet, 2000). Language learning may improve international adjustment and lead to increased satisfaction and fewer turnovers (Shaffer & Harrison, 1998). The language barrier is potentially high in situations where cultures are widely differing and languages may not even share a common alphabet, for example between the West and China, making it extremely difficult for expatriates to acquire a high degree of language ability (Selmer, 2006)
Additionally, Body Language is important because it can display more feelings than the sentence itself. For example; If a person is saying how angry they were the other day, when they say "I was so angry" They co... ... middle of paper ... ...risk of misinterpreting the message because the receiver is relying on one source. An example of the above would be: Chinese Whispers, where each receiver interprets what they hear slightly differently until at the end it is a completely different message due to the volume of the sender's voice. Overall, Body language does play an enormous part towards personal communication. Less so in Intrapersonal communication because it is more focused on thinking and cognition's rather than conveying a message.
Does cultural diversity lead to barriers of effective communication? Operational communication in the place of work can be in a lower position by specific barriers, containing the sealed workplace door or doubt between people. Within this paper I will focus on what barriers will be effective to communication tactics; how cultural diversity can affect communication and will traditional diversity affect barriers to effective communication? How does cultural diversity affect communication? It’s affected by communication by means of shifting the way cultures work together in a mutual discussion.
Influential psychologist and neuroscientist Merlin Donald wrote in his book A Mind So Rare, “The social environment includes many factors that impinge on development, from bonding and competitive stress to the social facilitation of learning. These can affect brain functioning in many ways, but usually they have no direct influence on functional brain architecture. However, symbolizing cultures own a direct path into our brains and affect the way major parts of the executive brain become wired up during development. This is the key idea behind the notion of deep enculturation... This process entails setting up the very complex hierarchies of cognitive demons (automatic programs) that ultimately establish the possibility of new forms of thought.