According to Alcamo (1996), each strand of the DNA double helix can act as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand as it contains a sequence of nucleotides that is exactly complementary to the nucleotide sequence of its partner strand. DNA replication is semi-conservative. Thus, two identical molecules of DNA are formed during DNA replication of one helix of DNA. Each new molecule of DNA contains one strand of parental DNA which is from the original helix and one strand of new DNA when DNA molecule is copied. DNA replication is a process that all cells must go through and occur before cell division (Corazon, 2010).
The report also states that the DNA molecule has a unique ability to pair with other DNA molecules through specific nucleotide base pairing. The report also describes ways in which this unique ability of DNA makes it an important construction material as well as outlining techniques of constructing DNA knots, polyhedrals and catenanes. Finally, this article outlines the ideas and techniques of supra-molecular knot formation described in the article, “Metallo-supra-molecular self-assembly of a universal 3-ravel”, by Feng et. al, (2011). The report uses the twenty-component Fe8L12 supra-molecule to describe the techniques of branched knot formation through metallo-supra-molecular assembly.
The basic principles of EST is messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences to represent duplicates from expressed genes, cDNA libraries created from various cells and tissues, single pass sequencing of both ends of insert and accumulation of readable sequence part in EST database. In order to generate EST, RNA are first reverse transcr... ... middle of paper ... ...gs in Bioinformatics, 8(1), 6-21. Patino, W. D., Milan, O. Y., & Hwang, P. M. (2002). Serial analysis of gene expression. Circulation Research, 91, 565-569.
DNA is present in almost every cell of our body. Each person has a unique sequence of DNA base pairs that makes up our DNA fingerprint. A DNA fingerprint is the same for every cell, tissue and organ of a person. According to Dalya Rosner on the Naked Scientists website, "DNA fingerprinting is a technique for determining the likelihood that genetic material came from a particular individual or group. 99% of human DNA is identical between individuals, but the 1% that differs enables scientists to distinguish identity" (Rosner, 2004).
The purpose of DNA extraction is to obtain DNA in a relatively purified form which can be used for further investigations such as PCR and DNA sequencing. Many different methods are available for isolating genomic DNA. Modification and optimization of DNA extraction methods are usually done for different types of cell (Dhaliwal, 2013). Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) is a preferable method that can be used for isolating the genomic DNA. There are four important steps in DNA extraction protocol of animal tissue which are enzymatic digestion of cellular protein, DNA precipitation, DNA washing, and DNA hydration (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) complements the HGP by examining the genomic variation of the human species, through analysis of DNA from populations, families and individuals worldwide. There are many different techniques involved in gene screening. With the start of the Human Genome Mapping Project some of these techniques have been altered to speed up the screening process. Examples of these techniques include PCR (polymerize chain reaction), RFLP's (restricti... ... middle of paper ... ...WWW: http://www.torontobiotech.org/factsheets/series1_02.htm 2. Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Additionally, there are also some techniques used to carry out gene therapy. These methods are gene augmentation, gene inhibition, and killing of specific cells therapy. However, genomics is an area that is within genetics and is concerned with analysis and sequencing of an organism’s genome. The genome is just the entire DNA content which is present in one cell of an
DNA has many significant uses to society, health and culture of today. One important area of DNA research is that used for genetic and medical research. Our abi... ... middle of paper ... ...rom http://www.dnaforensic.org/index.html. What is Biotechnology?. (n.d.).
Polymorphisms affect the length or sequence in a DNA strand. These differences, combined with inheritances of the polymorphisms from parental genes, allows for the DNA-based human identification to be made. The currently accepted DNA analysis method for STR analysis involves the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the target STR loci using a commercialized kit, followed by fragment analysis of fluorescently labelled amplicons via capillary electrophoresis (CE) (Butler 2007; Butler and Hill 2012). This type of analysis has become widely accepted however it has had issues relating to its speed, resolution, and scalability of the technology. Shendure (2011) stated that an efficient and cost... ... middle of paper ... ...or a whole genome to be analysed or for the ability of a single loci to be targeted.
There are several applications for genetic engineering in microbiology as well as other fields of biology.It includes invitro mutagenesis,gene synthesis, Expressing eukaryotic genes in bacteria,production of transgenic plants and animals,gene therapy,screening for genetic diseases and forensic analysis. STEPS IN RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY 1) PURIFYING DNA/ISOLATION OF DNA Purifying DNA and isolating genes is an important step in geneticengine... ... middle of paper ... ...e for the synthesis of new DNA strands, each randomly terminating due to the incorporation of a chain terminating dideoxynucleotide in 4 different reaction tubes. This produces a population of molecules, each terminating at a different site. Running the products in each tube on a gel allows the determination of where each chain terminating dideoxynucleotide was incorporated. The DNA is visualized because the DNA primer to start the reaction is radioactive or some of the dNTPs are radioactive This procedure is now automated so that a computer reads the sequence.