Although intelligence is only studied in humans, is it possible that machines may be more “intelligent” than those who created the machines in the first place? Artificial intelligence is known as “the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it” (“Artificial Intelligence”, 2012). These so called machines usually recognize their environment and take actions that will likely be successful. After WWII many people began working on these intelligent machines. Mathematician, Alan Turing, was one of the first after giving a lecture in 1947.
Haugeland, John, ed. Mind Design II: Philosophy, Psychology, Artificial Intelligence USA: MIT Press, 2000. Hodges, Andrew. Alan Turing and the Turing Test Mar. 15 2005 < http://www.turing.org.uk/turing/scrapbook/test.html> Millar P. H. “On the point of the Imitation Game.” Mind, New Series, Vol.
Each philosopher has his or her own belief concerning what an AI program should be able to do. Without a consensus as to what constitutes intelligence, it is impossible to determine with universal agreement whether or not AI has succeeded, is achievable, or is an unreachable dream. In considering the definitions and implications of Artificial Intelligence, many philosophers have reached extremely different conclusions. Alan Turing, author of the Turing Test, believed that an intelligent machine would be able to imitate perfectly a human. Margaret Boden, Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Sussex, contends that a machine is intelligent if it possesses and displays certain human values.
Alan Turing, a British computer scientist, stated that a computer would deserves to be called intelligent if it could deceive a human into believing that it was human. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way.  "Strong AI" approach claims that modeling the human mind is necessary for creating some form of computer-based AI that can truly reason and solve problems. A strong form of AI is said to be sentient (self-aware). In contrast, "weak AI" approach focus instead on simulating intelligence (attempting to create machines which will be perceived as intelligent by their users) rather than trying to create it through a model of the mind.
Natural Language Processing There have been high hopes for Natural Language Processing. Natural Language Processing, also known simply as NLP, is part of the broader field of Artificial Intelligence, the effort towards making machines think. Computers may appear intelligent as they crunch numbers and process information with blazing speed. In truth, computers are nothing but dumb slaves who only understand on or off and are limited to exact instructions. But since the invention of the computer, scientists have been attempting to make computers not only appear intelligent but be intelligent.
To them, pesent technology constrains this achievement. The Weak AI Theorists (WATs), almost converse to the SATs, believe that if a machine performs functions that resemble a human's, then there must be a correlation between it and consciousness. To them, there is no technological impediment to thinking machines, because our most advanced machines already think. It is important to review Searle's refutations of these respective theorists' proposition to establish a foundation (for the purpose of this essay) for discussing the applications of Artificial Intelligence, both now and in the future. Strong AI Thesis Strong AI Thesis, according to Searle, can be described in four basic propositions.
Functionalists see the mind as a functional type with a major role of information processing, rather than the physical brain (113). Therefore computers in the future have the potential to realise this function and once they can, they can be considered to have a mind. To suggest that machines cannot think would take on a solipsist view, which could entail doubting the ability that anyone can think (113). Turing devises a version of the imitation game, where an interrogator questions one human and one machine (in separate rooms) and tries to determine which one is machine. If a machine can pass this test, then they can think (128).
Can it possibly beat chess grand masters? There is also a more structured approach in assessing artificial intelligence, which began opening the door of the artificial intelligence contribution into the science world. According to this theoretical approach, what matters is not the input-output relations of the computer, but also what the program can tell us about actual human cognition (Ptack, 1994). From this point of view, artificial intelligence can not only give a commercial or business world the advantage, but also a understanding and enjoyable beneficial extend to everyone who knows how to use a pocket calculator. It can outperform any living mathematician at multiplication and division, so it qualifies as intelligent under the definition of artificial intelligence.
Concentrating research on a more cognitive model will allow the artificial intelligence (AI) field to create more intelligent entities and ultimately, once appropriate hardware exists, a true AI. Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines intelligence as the capacity to apprehend facts and propositions, to reason about them, and the ability to understand them and their relations to each other. A. M. Turing had this definition in mind when he made his predictions and designed his test, commonly known as the Turing test. His test is, in principle, simple. A group of judges converse with different entities, some computers and some human, without knowledge of which is which.
Floridi, Ludiano. (Ed.) Blackwell, pp 307-318 Turing, Alan. (1950) 'Computing Machinery and Intelligence'. Mind, 59, pp 433-460.