It is an important element in plant nutrition certain bacteria in the soil convert nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form, such as nitrate, that can be absorbed by plants, a process called nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen in the form of protein is an important component of animal tissue. The element occurs in the combined state in minerals, of which saltpeter (KNO3) and Chile saltpeter (NaNO3) are highly important products.Nitrogen combines with other elements only at very high temperatures or pressures. It is converted to an active form by passing through an electric discharge at low pressure. The nitrogen produced is very active, combining with alkali metals to form azides with the vapor of zinc, mercury cadmium, and arsenic to form nitrides and with many hydrocarbons to form nitriles.
First type of biogeochemical cycle is nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen is abundant and chemically inert gases, constitutes of about 78% of the atmosphere. According to Stevenson and Cole (1999), accumulation in soil happens through microbial fixation of nitrogen in the presence of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite; depletion exists in the process of crop removal, leaching and volatilization. In term of that, the process of releasing compound during decomposition is called mineralization. Mineralization process is carried out by the microorganisms in which it releases carbon, and also ammonium (Sprent, 1987).
The environment is stabilized by the biogeochemical cycles. Biogeochemical cycles are the processes that occur naturally and recycle the nutrients in different chemical forms from the non-living ecosystem to living organisms and then back to the non-living ecosystem. Biogeochemical cycles consist of five cycles which are iron cycle, sulphur cycle, phosphorus cycle, nitrogen cycle and carbon cycle. The most important and complex of biogeochemical cycles is the nitrogen cycle (Botkin & Keller, 2012). Nitrogen cycle allows the various nitrogenous species to cycle among the inert nitrogen gas in the atmosphere and soil (Newton, 1999).
Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of nitrogen into nitrates and nitrites through atmospheric, industrial and biological processes. Atmospheric nitrogen must be processed in a usable form to be taken up by plants. Atmospheric nitrogen are fixed by lightning strikes, but most fixation is done by free-living or symbiotic bacteria known as diazotrophs. These bacteria have the nitrogenase enzyme that combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia, which is converted by the bacteria into other organic compounds. Most biological nitrogen fixation occurs by the activity of Mo-nitrogenase, found in a wide variety of bacteria and some
Most of the Earth’s atmosphere is nitrogen (78%). When humans and all living things take a deep breath, most of what they just inhaled is nitrogen. All life needs nitrogen compounds, for examples are proteins and nucleic acids. For the plants, chlorophyll molecules use most of the nitrogen which are important for photosynthesis and further development. The quantity of nitrogen gas being permanently at any given time by natural processes produces only a small increase by fixed nitrogen that rotates among the living and non-living components of the Earth’s ecosystem (Peter et al., 1997).
Influences on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization: Implications for Soil Restoration and Revegetation Introduction Nitrogen is a macronutrient essential to the growth of plants and is also one of the most deficient nutrients in most soils. Insufficient levels of available soil nitrogen limit microbial growth and decay and growth of the plants themselves. Because site disturbance adversely affects the flow of nitrogen through soil-plant-microbial systems, the re-establishment of the cycle of nitrogen flow in the soil is crucial to revegetation attempts. Mineralizable nitrogen--nitrogen in forms readily usable by plants--is dependent upon a number of factors. According to Stanford and Smith (1972), those factors include soil moisture, pH level, temperature, microbial biomass, and amounts of other nutrients.
The ammonia that was produced during the process of ammonification enters the nitrogen cycle and is then used for the process of nitrification and assimilation. The fifth and last step of the nitrogen cycle is denitrification. Denitrification is the reduction of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen. Denitrifying bacteria reverses the action of nitrogen fixing and nitrifying bacteria by returning nitrogen to the atmosphere as nitrogen gas. I think that the nitrogen cycle is the most important cycle of the ecosystem because it effects the atmosphere and every organism on this earth.
If the balance between these latter two reservoirs is upset, serious consequences, such as global warming and climate disruption, may result. Nitrogen is essential for the formation of amino acids to make proteins. The nitrogen cycle describes the ways in which nitrogen is recycled Nitrogen is essential for the formation of amino acids in proteins. The nitrogen cycle is a model that explains how nitrogen is recycled. There 's lot of nitrogen in air – about 78% of the air is nitrogen.
Nitrogen trioxide symbolized by N2O3 is also a compound formed from Nitrogen as well as Nitrogen pentoxide, N2O5 which creates nitric acid when it is put in wat... ... middle of paper ... ...ontact with water it creates an ammonia gas product. This compound is known to be a catalyst as well as being able to produce “tiny dark lumps” (Magnesium Nitride) that “could scratch a polished block of boron carbide, something only diamond was known to do.” (Magnesium Nitride). Potassium Nitrate or KNO3 is used mostly in the agriculture business to protect chloride free sources such as tobacco, potatoes, and lettuce from deterioration. This compound is also popular among pharmaceutical companies. ‘Its use being to help in the desensitization of sore teeth, and it is commonly used in many toothpaste products.’ (PNA) Sodium nitrate known as NaNO3 is a combination of sodium and nitrogen and is found in a powder like form.
Only 3.7 percent is caused by transportation (Farnham, http://www.ems.psu.edu/info/explore/AcidRain.html). The other chemical that is also chiefly responsible for the make-up of acid rain is nitrogen oxide. Oxides of nitrogen is a term used to describe any compound of nitrogen with any amount of oxygen atoms. Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are all oxides of nitrogen. These gases are by-products of firing processes of extreme high temperatures (automobiles, utility plants), and in chemical industries (fertilizer production) (Phamornsuwana, http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hall/9111/DOC.HTML#SPECIFIC).