“In the earliest days of documentation, these people were viewed as 'crazy,” possessed by the devil or demons,” Dr. Gardenswartz says in Bipolar Magazine (Stephens, 2014). Bipolar disorder or manic-depressive disorder, consists of mood swings that range from the lows of depression to the highs of mania. Depending on the rapidness of the mood swings, the disorder can be classified as mixed or rapid. Mixed episodes last less than usual, while rapid cycling consists of four or more mood disordered episodes per year (“Bipolar Disorder,” 2012). The term “bipolar” logically emphasizes “the two poles, “usually experience both depressed and elevated moods in a cyclical manner, according to Robert L. Spitzer, MD, professor of psychiatry at Columbia University (Stephens, 2014).
(Jackson, 2010). Unipolar is a major depressive mental disorder generally relating to the loss of enjoyment of daily activities, low mood, and low self-esteem. Additionally, people suffering from bipolar go through a manic phase; however, people with unipolar disorder do not go through a manic phase. The manic phase takes place when a person had amplified excitability, racing or unreasonable thoughts, insomnia, and increased sexual promiscuity. However, both people with bipolar and unipolar disorder suffer from depression.
Parry, P. I., M.B.B.S., & Levin, E. C., M.D. (2012, January 2). Pediatric Bipolar Disorder in an Era of "Mindless Psychiatry" Retrieved April 06, 2014, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15299732.2011.597826#tabModule
Think psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Ballas, C. (2005, May 11). Health Encyclopedia. Schizophrenia. Retrieved November 23, 2013 from http://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/408/472.html?ic=506048 U.S Department of Health and Human Services.
psychologytoday.com Web. 15 July 2015. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/bipolar-you/201402/misdiagnosis-bipolar-disorder • Abraham, R.A. (2015, February 25). “Causes of bipolar disorder”. webmd.com Web. 28 June 2015. http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/bipolar-disorder-causes • Frans, E.M. (2008).
Characteristics of Bipolar Disorders Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function (Mental Help Net, 2004). Different from the normal ups and downs that everyone goes through, the symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe. They can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. Bipolar Disorder is broken down into two types: Bipolar I: For a diagnosis of Bipolar I disorder, at least one manic or mixed episode clearly is or has been present (APA, 2000). DSM-IV Criteria for Bipolar I Disorder consists of: One or more Manic or Mixed episodes Commonly accompanied by a history of one or more major depressive episodes, but not required for the diagnosis.
13 May 2014. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/depression_signs_types_diagnosis_treatment.htm RANDYE, HODER. "Depression - TIME - News, Pictures, Quotes, Archive." TIME.com. N.p., 13 Feb. 2014. Web.
In mixed states depressive and manic symptoms occur simultaneously in rapid successions. Bipolar disorder can be life threatening due to the extreme mood swings between the sense of hapiness or despair and grief. The continuous alteration between episodes makes it profoundly difficult to deal with everyday normal life and situations. This can cause an increased risk of suicide in bipolar disorder patients.
Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/schizophrenia/how-is-schizophrenia-treated.shtml Preston, J. D., O'Neal, J. H., & Talaga, M. C. (2010). Handbook of clinical psychopharmacology for therapists. (Sixth ed., pp. 1-360). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Spearing, M. K. (2002).
Retrieved November 13, 2013, from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/hide-and-seek/201206/short-history- bipolar-disorder Bipolar Disorder: Treatment and Drugs. (January 18 2012). retrieved November 17 2013, from Mayo Clinic Web Site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/bipolar- disorder/DS00356/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs The Number Counts: Mental Illness in America. (n.d) retrieved November 17 2013, from NIMH Web Site: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/the-numbers- count-mental-disorders-in-america/index.shtml