Community policing attempts to build trust between police officers and citizens and changes each one’s perception of the other. In order to accomplish this trust, police officers need to be fair and responsive through personal contacts on a continuous, prolonged basis. Different law enforcement executives utilize different styles of leadership and
Agnew also points out another factor which contributes to criminal behaviour but which does not fit into the life domains; the factor of prior crime. I feel this factor is not analyzed enough in theories except for the labeling theory which explains that by attaching a stigma to an individual's life their deviant behaviour will only escalate. We focus on the steps which lead to crime but not the after affects of having already committed the crime. Agnew believes that although having engaged in crime the probability of future engagement foes increase, it does not always lead to further crime explaining that there are two factors which effect prior crimes; 1. how others react and 2. the characteristics of the individual (Agnew 2011, Pg 608). Each reaction to the crime will lead to a different outcome, for example if the offender gets away with the crime that fear of being caught slowly diminishes giving them confidence to continue with their delinquent behaviour.
Walker pointed out few basic assumptions which are related to deterrence theory that may not work at the real world. First, offenders have to be aware of the threat (123). For example, they have to know that they are exposed to being caught if there are more police officers out there to arrest them. Second, offenders have to perceive that violations of law may lead to unwanted incidents, so they need to be avoided. They should realize the criminal record is bad for their future; if they want to apply for a job, there is low possibility that interviewers will accept them since they have criminal records.
The fear of crime can negatively affect the residents ' behavior, reduce community organization and deter new businesses from wanting to open in the area for fear of being robbed. This adds to the economic woes of an area heavy with crime. The law enforcement organizations of high-crime areas generally utilize an increased visibility, but this often backfires in low-income areas, causing the population to see the police as the enemy. Other problems include the fact that victims of crime must deal with increased fear and trauma afterward. Even for those who have not been a victim of a crime, fear can vary depending upon the demographics of the person.
Furthermore, we will also look at how this relates to domestic violence. As first mentioned there are 3 categories to Agnew’s theory. The first category, the failure to achieve positively valued goals, suggests that “communities… may affect crime rates by influencing goals that residents pursue and the ability… to achieve such goals through legitimate channels” (Agnew, 1999). This category includes 3 subcategories: the failure to reach ideal goals, the failure to achieve expectations, and the failure to be treated in a fair and just manner. The failure to reach ideal goals also includes personal inadequacies in abilities and skills in achievement of immediate goals.
However biological reasons cannot solely be the cause of criminal behavior. Therefore, one must look to other sources as to how a criminal mind is developed. Social and environmental factors also are at fault for developing a person to the point at which they are lead to committing a criminal act. Often, someone who has committed a violent crime shows evidence of a poorly developed childhood, or the unsuitable current conditions in which the subject lives. In addition if one studies victimology which is the role that the victim plays in the crime, it is apparent that there are many different causes for criminal behavior.
The tax protest had become an armed rebellion and Washington had to lead federal and state militia to put down. It appropriated the rituals and rhetoric of the militia muster and used the language of civic obligation and republican liberty. However, their idea that assembling in arms for liberty was rejected because Republicans believed that bearing arms was only for a well-regulated militia under state authority. The rebellion easily fell apart due to government forces (Cornell, 76-... ... middle of paper ... ... Although the danger of a standing army and the threat to the militia were discussed in all of the state ratification conventions, that every man may be armed was the prominent issue in Virginia.
After England sent over 40,000 soldiers to the colonies to collect taxes, Parliament passed the Quartering Act, forcing colonist to provide living quarters and food for soldiers. Even though the colonists were paying taxes to England, were not allowed to choose representatives to send to England to speak on their behalf. They were not allowed any representation in making the laws they had to obey. The colonists wanted a voice. They wanted to make their own laws and did not want to be forced to follow laws that had been made from across the ocean.
Believing that the Navigation Acts should be enforced strictly and that the lightly taxed colonists should pay a share of the empire's defense costs, Parliament in March 1765 passes the Stamp Act to raise revenue. Next thing you know Parliament imposes another act on the colonies, the Mutiny Act, stating that the colonists must house and maintain the British troops. Ok, you are a bit mad, but it is maintainable. Out of the blue, you hear about a shooting in Boston, where five people were shoot by the British troops, there is a lot of propaganda surrounding. Your neighbors, along with yourself are enraged by what you hear.
Every officer needs to be supportive of the program or it is destined to fail. The role of police can vary, from promoting the development of community organizations and assembling the organizations in problem solving and community building activities. The role of police is traditional known for enforcing the laws, which aim to making good arrests and having a high success rate for prosecution of criminals, and are involved in other maintenance activities, such as maintaining social order and are active in the community. For example, officers can have conversations with citizens of the community and get their perspective of what is working and what needs help. The last thing that is on their agenda is issuing an arrest.