One of the oldest breeds is the basenji, which originated in central Africa and is use... ... middle of paper ... ...opulation, and then the wolfs started to adapt to the humans niche (Wayne). Constance says that it is called Miacis, the genus that became the ancestor of the animals known today as canids: dogs, jackals, wolves, and foxes. Miacis did not leave direct descendants, but doglike canids evolved from it. She says that it is likely that wild canids were scavengers near tribal camps at the same time that ancient humans discovered someone to hunt with in the animals that lived close by. In ancient Egypt, dogs were thought to possess godlike characteristics (Vanacore).
Brandon Kour Date 2/12/2014 Mrs. Pohlonski 1st Hour A world of cloning Cloning use to be a thing of pure science fiction. Ever since the first successful clone, Dolly the sheep, was created by Dr. Ian Wilmut, scientists have been working on different techniques to clone animals and even humans. Scientist have developed several methods recently to clone animals. Harvesting Cells, Tissues, and Organs for cloning or later use advances scientists way to save lives and create the perfect baby. Cloning can be used in medicine, the revival of endangered species, cloning livestock, and even in drug production.
Love is the expansion of the self to include the other. In addition, a wolf’s wisdom can help people dissolve the barrier humans have built over time that obscures the truth about humans’ interconnection with nature. In fact, when this barrier is removed, humans can begin to perceive all of nature as part of their soul family and not as something else which they can destroy at will. In the end, wolves and humans have been close to each other for tens of thousands of years in many ways. Wolves have taught early people how to survive and wolves have also taught early people what spirituality is all about.
With these observations, Lamarck concluded that these characteristics were hereditary. Proposed during two decades, the 1930s and 1940s, the synthetic theory involved a group of scientists. The group of scientists included two American biologists, Russian Theodosius and German Ernst Mayr, and the British geneticist and statistician Ronald A. Fisher. Together, they proposed the synthetic theory which combined Darwin's theory of natural selection with the ideals of genetics. In 1808, French naturalist Chevalier de Lamarck contemplated a theory of evolution, although, his theory of evolution did not gain any recognition until 1858.
However, the scientific cloning history really began in 1902, when Hans Spemann divided a salamander embryo in two, showing that early embryo cells retain all the genetic information necessary to create a new organism. Later, Spemann also performed the first nuclear transfer experiment, and ten years later, the German scientist proposed a "fantastic experiment;" to transfer one cell's nucleus into an egg without a nucleus, the basic method that would eventually be used in cloning. Many years later, Neal First produced genetic copies of calves from embryos. They grew to about 120 cells. A year later, scientist Ian Wilmut copied First’s experiment with separate cells from sheep, but put the embryo cells into an inactive state before transferring their nuclei to sheep eggs.
Dolly was cloned from an adult sheep in Scotland. Dolly was the beginning of the experimentation of cloning full mammals. We now clone many mice and claves all cloned from adult cells that still now fascinate many scientists. However, the idea of cloning and cloning has been done before; however, now that a full mammal that was cloned from an adult cell was successful, it triggered the idea of possibly cloning a full human. There were many experiments done with the idea of cloning and the questioning of the replication process when cells divide; experiments were done as early as 1888.
Brief History of GM Animals Development In 1974, Rudolf Jaenisch and Beatrice Mintz created the first genetically modified (GM) animal which carried the modified gene in its tissue. It was a transgenic mice created by insertion of foreign DNA into early-stage mouse embryos (Jaenisch & Mintz 1974; Jones 2011). The term ‘transgenic’ was, however, first introduced by Gordon and Ruddle in 1981 when they created a GM mouse that was capable of passing specified foreign genes to its offspring (Gordon & Ruddle 1981; Jones 2011). They did so by microinjection of recombinant plasmid carrying a portion of the SV40 virus and the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene into single-celled mouse embryos. Only two of the 78 injected mice were transformed and the integration of the DNA into the host genome was random, nevertheless their study showed that DNA c... ... middle of paper ... ...views Genetics 2, 743-755.
Dolly was named after Dolly Parton, the mammary cell that was cloned after giving birth at the Roslin Institute. The cloning of Dolly sparked much discussion and debate that has stuck around today. Dolly was the first successful reproductive clone. What first started out as the first ever demonstration of artificial embryo in 1885 quickly transformed into the success of cloning animals such as sheep, cows, and mice (“The History of Cloning”). With the help of decades of me... ... middle of paper ... ...n.d.
Chimeras are created by injecting foreign DNA(from another animal) into a developing animal embryo. Chimeras were first primarily used to understand developmental biology. Today, chimeras are used for disease processes, test new drugs, and organ transplants. Sheep and pig have been genetically modified to produce human organs for transplant. In 2004, pigs have been modified to have human blood (Silverman).
Biological evolution is the name for the changes in gene frequency in a population of a species from generation to generation. Evolution offers explanation to why species genetically change over years and the diversity of life on Earth. Although it is generally accepted by the scientific community, Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has been studied and debated for several decades. In 1859, Darwin published On The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolutionary thought which he supported with evidence of one type of evolutionary mechanism, natural selection. Some of the main mechanisms of evolution are natural selection, mutation, and genetic drift.