What Is Multiple Intelligence Theory?

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It has been previously believed that intelligence was a single thing that was inborn, and that human beings, could be trained to learn anything, provided that it was presented in an appropriate way (Smith, 2002, 2008)

According to the originator of multiple intelligences theory, Howard Gardner, however, intelligence can be defined in three ways, namely belonging to all human beings; an element on which human beings are different; and the ways in which a person carries out a task in based on their goals (McFarlane, 2011).

According to Smith and Smith, Howard Gardner has been a paradigm shifter on the subject of intelligence. He has questioned the idea that intelligence is a single thing, that it results from a single factor,
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The theory of multiple intelligences focuses on the deficiencies of many theories that do not take individual differences consideration as the basis of intelligence (McFarlane, 2011).

To decide whether or not a particular human ability can pass as intelligence, Gardner established eight criteria for an intelligence to be identified. Evidence of this can be seen based on intellectual competence by brain damage; the presence of highly uneven profiles of abilities of prodigies, and autistic children; the existence and pitch abilities in music; the existence of a characteristic developmental history associated with expert performances; the possibility of an evolutionary history; the evidence showing the difficulty of establishing transfer of learning across tasks; the support from psychometric findings on the high correlation among tasks designed to assess one type of ability; and the susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system such as language, mathematics, and picturing. Based on these criteria, Gardner initially identified seven intelligences that all individuals possess to varying degrees. An eighth intelligence was added when Gardner considered additional candidate intelligences including naturalist, spiritual and moral
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The theory of multiple intelligences is interesting as it expands the prospect of available teaching and learning tools beyond the conventional linguistic and logical methods used in most schools (American Institute for Learning and Human Development, 2014).

Differentiating instruction in Physical Education is adapted learning for all students in a all-encompassing classroom environment. While adapted physical education focuses on modifying the curriculum, activities or environment to meet varying needs of students, differentiated instruction focuses on changing content, learning activities, outcomes and environment to meet the needs of all learners (Ellis, Lieberman and Le Roux, 2009).

A Physical Education class is an extremely diverse environment, different sizes, shapes, abilities, aspirations and motivation levels. Despite this, teachers need to make sure the class is conducive to learning. Taking into account each students needs is extremely important for making a student feel comfortable, motivated and successful (Ellis, Lieberman and Le Roux,
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