The categorizations of rape, sexual harassment, and pornography as forms of violence are problematic in themselves because they do not capture the reality of sex. In fact, much of intercourse is about violence (MacKinnon p. 268), in the way that power and dominance are extremely eroticized, thus to say “rape is violence” is a misnomer. MacKinnon brings one’s attention to the construction of rape, which separates rape from intercourse based on the amount of force applied (p. 268). This definition is especially legitimate in the legal system, which derives solely from a male point of view: it is called rape when there is penetratio... ... middle of paper ... ... sabotages the subject-object relationship. To display an autonomous, free willed being will dismantle the taken for granted passivity and vulnerability of the victim.
As Allan Johnson states this is related to the fact that “male dominance creates power differences between men and women” (248). So because of the fact that men hold positions of power they seem more superior to women creating these stereotypes about each gender. The reason this is importa... ... middle of paper ... ...n though domestic violence is frowned upon men use it to instill fear in a woman. It is a strange concept but largely in part while domestic violence is performed as I stated earlier. Violence is the way men gain control and they use this in many different areas.
Earlier explanations of rape by Dizinno and Thornhill (1986) have explained it as an evolved, facultative behaviour that is condition- dependent. In this view, rape may be engaged in by men who are relatively unsuccessful in competition for the resources and status necessary to attract and reproduce successfully with desirable mates. Thornhill and Palmer (2000), have grounded their evolutionary explanation of rape in the Darwinian theory. They have argued that rape is a sexually motivated behaviour, not an act of power and control, which is in complete contrast to the feminist approach to rape. Rape is... ... middle of paper ... ...en from his village never to return.
Men are dominant over women, men are regarded as inferior to women, and women occupy a marginal status in our patriarchal culture. This culture, in the feminist view, fosters rape by its ideas that relate to women being secondary to men. Our cultural values do not necessarily encourage rape; they just provide the raw material some men need to justify inferior behavior and exploitive attitudes towards
Motives of Rape Other Than Sexual Desire Although there are many underlying motives behind why a man would rape, three of the most conspicuous are anger, power, and sadistic purposes. When an average person hears of a rape, he frequently assumes the offender was reacting to sexual frustration or that he was a demented sex-fiend harboring insatiable and perverted lasciviousness. The rape offender is often accused of being primarily motivated by sexual desires, and by committing the act of forced assault, he is gratifying only his sexual needs. On the contrary, according to A. Nicholas Groth and H. Jean Birnbaum, "Careful clinical study of offenders reveals that rape is in fact serving primarily nonsexual needs. It is the sexual expression of power and anger" (2).
So the model of human rights violation is based on state action. The result is when men use their liberties socially to deprive women ... ... middle of paper ... ... recognizes that violence against women violates human rights. Crimes against humanity, which traditionally can be gender based have not been part of treaty law. In the international crime of genocide, the sex- specific destruction of women as members of their religious, national, or ethnic communities is largely ignored. As positions polarized during the Cold War, western governments attributed priority to civil and political rights, which they believed were integral to a prosperous free market economy.
Those who score high on a scale of ambivalent sexism or more inclined to rape, and those who hold more traditional gender-roles are more inclined to trivialize rape, blame the victim, and excuse the perpetrator. This source was used to explain the societal factors behind rape, where ambivalent sexism and gender-role traditionality combine in a dynamic attitude derived from patriarchy. This article was helpful in addressing patriarchy as the structural force behind rape.
But pornography has a detrimental affect on men as well, in that it “hurts men’s capacity to relate to women” (189). Generally, men consider it is better to have power, and do not recognize the need for men and women to work together. Pornography is one of the largest obstacles that prevents men from seeing this truth, and the practice should be banned. Even according to MacKinnon’s definition of pornography, sexually explicit material could remain legal if it portrayed both sexes equally. However, this can not happen until men and women are equal in society.
Sexual dominance and passiveness is another traditional script inspected in this essay, focusing on how men are always expected to be the prevailing initiator thus devouring more power in relationships while women stays being the weaker, submissive receivers. Sexuality is a fundamental part of our self-discovery, involving much more than just being genetically or anatomically male and female and it is not defined solely by one 's sexual acts (Ministry of Education 1989, p.79 cited in Gourlay, P 1995). The notion that sexuality is fixed and innate disregards the social aspects that impact ones’ sexualities. Gagnon and Simon (1973) further commented that sexuality is a feature of social
Reproductive success is defined as genes that are passed on to their offspring that can potential be passed on to future generations. Rape as an adaption model declares that males who lack the resources to attract mates, have developed a strategy also known as rape, in which they force females to copulate in order to pass on their genes. This strategy was developed in belief that without rape, certain males would have a lesser chance of reproductive success (Palmer, 1991). Here the gains outweigh the cost. Males who rape have little to lose when committing this act of violence, but if successful they gain the opportunity of their genes being passed on to future generations if the offspring survive.