What Is Failure Of Zero Tolerance?

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In Figure 1, we see a common theme in both the school to prison and foster care to prison pipelines, in both setting youth of color are being harshly sanctioned. It states that minority boys are being harshly disciplined from school to prison. In Russell Skiba (2014), “Failure of Zero Tolerance,” he states that out of school suspension and expulsion were seen at a higher rate for minor infractions like insubordination and other behavioral violations. While on the other hand, 30% of foster care youth entering the criminal justice system are for “behavioral cases.” School-to-Prison Pipeline The most controversial points in the discussion of trends is the zero tolerance policy. In 1994, the federal government passed the Gun-Free Schools Act…show more content…
In a research article by Russell J. Skiba (2014), four specific points were discussed for guiding the study. These points include the effects of zero tolerance, inconsistency of implementation, poor outcomes, and unfair application. The focus of the article was on the failures of zero tolerance from evidences surrounding the practices and providing a preventive model in its place (Skiba, 2014). Zero tolerance is supposed to ensure school safety and improve school climate. However, there is not any data that exist to show that out of school placements (suspensions or expulsions) make schools safer. Conversely, the research stated that “suspensions, expulsions, and that increase use of law enforcement in school settings are themselves risk factors for a range of negative academic and life outcomes” (Skiba, 2014). The results of the articles suggested zero benefits of the effectiveness of zero tolerance. The research suggested a correlation between out-of-school suspensions and lower graduation rates, higher drop-out rates and a greater chance of contact with the criminal justice system (Skiba, 2014). The policy shows a minority over-representation in disciplinary actions in schools. Skiba (2014), states black males are punished more severely for non-violent behaviors and subjective infractions. A preventive model discussed included six points to…show more content…
In addition to, zero tolerance forces the implementation of “on-campus law enforcement whose presence can magnify both the number and seriousness of offenses (Payne et al, 2014).” They discuss that most of these officers lack sufficient training which leads to more arrests. In this article, Payne et al. (2014), discusses a report written by U.S. Department of Education. They discuss that the report it “encourages schools to create positive climates with evidence-based prevention strategies for discipline (Payne et al, 2014).” This positive climate is defined as Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. This is a framework for behavioral guidance and social culture focused on emotional needs and academic success (Payne et al, 2014). This framework is the opposing framework of excess use of untrained law enforcement officers. In this article, the writers discussed an incident in which a boy was handcuffed and suspended for cutting in front of someone in a lunch line (Payne et al, 2014). This student had an IEP for oppositional defiant disorder. Upon his return of his suspension, he was in a fight and again arrested and handcuffed again by law enforcement (Payne et al,

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