The purpose of this research was to describe and understand Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the most effective treatment options that are available today. ADHD is a mental health disorder that affects 3-9% of the population in ways that, if left untreated, can wreak havoc on the mind of the sufferer. It makes concentration difficult, large tasks seem insurmountable, and causes impulsive and hyperactive tendencies. Fortunately, research and experiments have led to new and effective treatments to help those who suffer from this disorder (Dupaul 8). This research examined journal articles and internet sources on the topic to help unlock the complexities of the disorder through scientific research. It also was a way to separate the myths of the disorder from the truths, while discovering the causes, diagnosis methods, and best treatment alternatives to battle this prevalent disorder.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about one-half of 1.6 million elementary school-aged children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been diagnosed with a learning disability (LD) (Brown University Child and Adolescence Behavior Letter, 2001). The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1997) stated that ADHD affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, and boys are three times more likely to be affected by the disorder than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, and the disorder and its symptoms are chronic and pervasive (www.asha.org). In the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ADHD is categorized into three subtypes which are ADHD Predominantly Inattention Type, ADHD Predominantly Hyperactivity-Impulsive Type, and ADHD Combined Type.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity (del Campo et al, 2011). The disorder begins in early childhood and persists into adolescence, and for 70% it continues on to adulthood (Sharma & Couture, 2014). Those who suffer ADHD experience challenges, particularly during their development. Impulsivity and inattention often result in lower performance in school, and greater incidents of motor accidents and¬ risky behaviour. Additionally, individuals with ADHD have higher rates of one or more comorbidities including major depression and anxiety disorders (Sharma & Couture).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), more commonly referred to as ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder), has only recently come to notice of scientists. It affects 3.5 million people under the age of 18 and 5 million people over the age of 18. Its current cause of existence is due to defects at neurotransmitter sites, rendering patients inattentive and impulsive. However, every year more progress is made in locating the cause and finding more effective treatments. ADHD's first diagnosis was made in 1902 by Dr. George Still. He observed 20 children who were inattentive, impulsive, hyperactive, and showed mood swings. He initially attributed their behavior to mild brain damage. By 1917 ADHD or constantly active was still thought to have this cause. At this time, viral encephalitis seemed to be linked to the disease because, after being infected, children had impaired attention, memory, and impulse control. In 1937 ADHD was known as minimal brain dysfunction and began to be treated with amphetamines, which made children with the disorder much calmer.
Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder is a disorder composed of three major components: inattentiveness, impulsivity, and motor hyperactivity. Symptoms of these components include excessive fidgeting with hands or feet, repeated difficulty remaining seated, following through on instructions, extreme difficulty in attempting to play quietly, and excessive interruption of conversations, just to list a few. A child with ADHD can bear one or all of these features, depending on the severity of the case. These children usually have functional impairments in a variety of places including the home, school, and in relationships with fellow peers. These signs can come and go, being extremely prevalent one day and unnoticeable the next.
For a typical person with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sitting down to do a task such as homework can be agonizing, the physical act of staying in place, being as difficult as concentrating on the work. The person with ADHD may go on in life to have social problems because symptoms such as hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, are mistaken as laziness or self-centeredness (14). The problems of ADHD often develop further manifesting as compulsive disorder, depression, school and job failure, relationship trouble, and substance addiction (5). ADHD is a psychiatric disorder, first documented by the medical society in 1902, that is diagnosed in 3%-5% of school age children (14). Although, there have been many changes in the understanding of the still puzzling disorder, the diagnostic criteria now given for ADHD are given by the DSM-IV, which provides lists of symptoms for three types. The person can have the hyperactivity type, the inattentive type, or a combination of the two, which is a third type. In order to be diagnosed with either type the person must express six of the symptoms from one category or the other, and the symptoms must have been present for at least six months. The person has the combination type if they have six symptoms from both categories (8) .
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is usually when a child or an adult isn’t able to focus, is overactive, not able control behavior, or a combination of all of these. ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder and to be diagnosed the person must considered to be out of the normal range for a person's age and development. There’s three types of ADHD Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type, Predominantly Inattentive Type, and Combination Type. The first type, behavior is determined by hyperactivity and impulsivity, not inattentiveness. Usually doctors can tell this specific type through symptoms like trouble playing quietly, talking excessively or out of turn, can’t sit neither stand still, etc. The second type behavior is marked by inattentiveness, not hyperactivity and impulsivity. This type is determined on how focused your child is, forgetfulness, listening, ability to understand directions, etc. Lastly the third type is a combination of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentive symptoms which is the most common type of ADHD. While lastly this type is determined if u have a combination of the symptoms listed before. According to NY Times Daily News about 6.4 million children have received an ADHD diagnosis at some point. There has been a 16% increase since 2007 as well as a 53% increase in the past decade. Over the course of years there’s been a doubt of the diagnostic of ADHD therefore there’s been new changes in the criteria.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder also known as ADHD is a psychological condition. There are three sets of symptoms associated with ADHD: inattention and distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. (Counseling Center , 2007). ADHD is a brain disorder and is one of the most common childhood brain disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 2012). It is the inability of a child to stay still, stay focused and inactive. The symptoms of this disorder include difficulty controlling behavior, difficulty staying focused and paying attention and hyperactivity (over-activity). In order for a child to be diagnosed with ADHD not all symptoms have to be present. These symptoms can make it challenging for a child with ADHD to be successful in school, getting along with other children, or finishing tasks at home. (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 2012). ADHD is recognized under Axis 1 in the DSM-V, as it is classified as a clinical syndrome.
The treatment of people with ADHD has varied over the years with what they can and cannot do. “ADHD stands for Attention-defiance hyperactivity disorder, it is a condition characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity” (NAMI). Usually, it is diagnosed in early childhood, but it is not limited to children, adults can also be diagnosed later in their years. The diagnose effects about 9% in children ages 9-17 and 2-4% adults. The symptoms are different for everyone, because there is such a wide range of diagnoses. ADHD itself cannot be determined by just one test, it takes a series of test. Symptoms include, difficult engaging is activities quietly, excessive talking, difficult times in paying attention and failure to pay attention to close details. Although it is hard for many to understand, ADHD is not an educational thing, it is a medical thing.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), once called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, is one of the most common mental disorders among children. (Elia, Ambrosini, Rapoport, 1999) It affects 3 to 5 percent of all children, with approximately 60% to 80% of these children experiencing persistence of symptoms into adolescence and adulthood, causing a lifetime of frustrated dreams and emotional pain. There are two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: an inattentive type and a combined type. The symptoms of ADHD can be classified into three categories: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. This behaviour stops ADHD sufferers from focussing deliberately on organising and completing a specific task that they may not enjoy, learning new skills or information is proved to be impossible. An example of such behaviour is recognised by the report written by the National Institute of Mental Health where one of the subjects under study was unable to pass schooling examinations due to her inattentive behaviour. Such behaviour can damage the person's relationships with others in addition to disrupting their daily life, consuming energy, and diminishing self-esteem. (National Institute of Mental Health 1999) There are also secondary symptoms which are associated with ADHD, such as learning disorders, anxiety, depression and other mood disorders, tic disorders, and conduct disorders. (Spencer, Biederman, and Wilens 1999 in Monastra V, Monastra D, George, 2002)