The stage of moral reasoning a person is in, which ranges from punishment orientation to an individual’s principles and conscience, can play a great role in how they take action. “Ethical decision making involves four distinct psychological steps: moral sensitivity/awareness, moral judgment, moral motivation/intention, and moral action/courage” (Lincoln, S., & Holmes, E. K., 2010). Within these steps one must distinguish what is right from wrong, consider the consequences of your choices and make the right decision. Depending on what you believe is morally correct will determine the decision you make. Other beliefs, such as bias, can also cause you to make certain decisions (Howard, 2012).
INDIVIDUAL ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE In an attempt to obtain a clearer awareness of my own ethical perspectives, I completed the Ethics Awareness Inventory. This inventory presented me with several questions into what I valued most and least as moral values. In addition, the inventory presented two sample situations involving ethical considerations from a management per-spective in a work environment. Through taking this inventory, I was able to gain an insight into how my values and perceptions could shape my actions and the impact of those actions in future circum-stances. This insight will allow me the benefit of choosing which ethical perspective best suits the individual situations as they present themselves and provides me with opportuni-ties to ask more key questions to serve the situations in a manner that is more true to my own ethical standards.
Likewise, such ideas explain why there is such a variety of moral systems in use today and a marked difference in the level of commitment to a personal moral code. Ethics and ethical language, the study of which 'Meta-Ethics' is part, can be split into three distinct branches: descriptive, normative and meta-ethical. On the one hand, descriptive ethics describes the way we live and the moral choices we happen to make. On the other, normative ethics employs the kind of language which is more openly moral and presents a clearer idea about what is held to be right or wrong; so, a statement such as "It is always wrong to tell a lie" is a normative statement. Contrastingly to both, meta-ethics is the study of the meaning of ethics itself, gauging the meaning of ethical language, and taking into consideration the authority of moral claims and the effects of personal preference.
Ethical Perspectives Introduction Ethics involves identifying, differentiating, and defending concepts of right and wrong, and what values humanity retains from ethical growth and development. The Williams Group for Ethics and Management developed an exercise, called the Ethics Awareness Inventory, which analyzes responses to a set of questions, and categorizes the results under four ethical perspectives: Character (or Virtue Ethics), Obligation (or Deontological Ethics), Results (or Utilitarianism), and Equity (or Relativism). After completion of the inventory, my ethical perspective was determined to be Obligation, or Deontological Ethics. I will begin by explaining the core beliefs and values of the ethical perspective of Obligation, and look into the beliefs and values of the remaining three perspectives. I will also examine a few issues which will likely be faced in my workplace, examining how my ethical perspective comes into play.
Given this obvious challenge within the field of psychology, several ethical decision-making models have been postulated as an additional guide to the American Psychological Association’s Code of ethics in assisting psychologists in appropriately resolving ethical dilemmas. Psychologists ethical decision making is guided by constructs including values, morality, community standards, reasonableness and professionalism (Corey, Corey & Callanan, 2006). Ethical decision making can be carefully evaluated through models such as that of Tymchuck (1981), Kitchener (1984) and Day (1996). According to Tymchuck’s model, a detailed description of the situation containing information derived from all relevant sources must first be obtained to identify critical issues (Freeman, 2000). The ethical decision is then calculated through a thorough evaluation of the critical issues outlined using an analogous process where consequences are carefully assessed (Freeman, 2000).
The six steps of the model are as follows: Identify the ethical dilemma, collect information, state the options, apply ethical principles to those options, make the decision, and implement the decision (Beemsterboer, 2010). The first step is to identify the ethical dilemma, which Beemsterboer describes as the most critical step in the model. To identify the ethical dilemma, one must recognize that the problem is an ethical dilemma with no one clear answer, and expound upon what the ethical question is. The next step is to collect information about the situation and values involved “as a basis for an informed decision.” (Beemsterboer, 2010, para. 8).
The text defines ethical dilemma as situations that have two or more values in conflict (Woodside & McClam, 2015). As a human service professional, there may be times when situations may emerge and an individual might be uncertain of the proper action to take. A human service professional must look at all points of view. In addition, they must establish a list of problems and examine the multiple viewpoints. Furthermore, they must develop potential outcomes and analyze the impact each decision may have.
As stated above the first step is to determine if there is an ethical dilemma. To determine if there is a dilemma the social worker should refer to the ethical theories noted in Rothman. Rothman (2008) explores three important questions in determining if there is an issue or dilemma. In the case of unethical documentation, it is justified as an ethical dilemma referencing to the distributive question found in Rothman 2008. The distributive question from Rothman (2008) ask whose interest does this theory address (p. 15)?
When faced with having to make an ethical choice, get the facts, evaluate the options, make a decision and act on it, and explain your rationale. How a leader chooses to handle ethical conflicts in the sets the example for everyone to follow. Works Cited Jones, G.R. (2013). Organization theory, design and change.
Aside from it, weighing results of actions or decision is also another major concern because of the fact that a person has critically analyze whose side is needed to satisfied. There are instances that moral obligations are also considered, in which moral is defined as a universal accepted personal human behavior that allows a person to decide whether an action or decision is good or bad. In the case of Joelle, this study will significantly identify the different ethical principles that can be applied in the case. In addition to it, the study will also arrive in one ethical theory that Joelle can be applied in her situation in order for her to effectively determine what she will do and if her decision and action can be considered ethical or the right thing. UTILITARIANISM Utilitarianism is an ethical theory in which determining the rightness or wrongness of action or decision is based on determining whether the greatest benefit or happiness will be provided in the highest or greatest number of population.