The angry and easily manipulated peasants, who were used by the bourgeoisie for their own benefit were another significant change, and finally the decline of the traditional monarchy, that for so long had ruled, were all factors to the main point that the French Revolution was caused by a political base, with social disorder and economic instability contributing to the upheaval. All of the sub-factors relate with one-another, but are separate in their own ways. For centuries, the French noble was well set in society. He found prosperity and security in the old regime, and all he had to do was pay homage to the king, and provide the king with his services. This all came to a gradual stop, however beginning with the loss of the noble's power over their own land at the hands of Louis XIV.1 This was the foundation of the revolte nobiliaire in the fact that it formed a basis of mistrust, and anger for the monarch.2 In that time the feudal system was still being practiced, so social status was based on the amount of land you could attain.
The government in Sparta was controlled by an oligarchy in which the power was held by a group of five men called ephors. Working below the ephors was the Council of Elders and an Assembly. Male citizens over age sixty could serve on the Council while anyone, male or female, over the age of twenty could be a member of the Assembly.1 Though the citizens had little say in the decisions made by the government, the system worked effectively. It was the oligarchy in Sparta that put a war-like attitude as its first priority in the city-state. Every man in the army fought with a great deal of passion for his country.
In hopes of rebuilding America, the capitalists’ hunger for wealth only widened the gap between the rich and poor. During the 1800’s, business leaders who built their affluence by stealing and bribing public officials to propose laws in their favor were known as “robber barons”. J.P. Morgan, a banker, financed the restructuring of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. In addition, Andrew Carnegie, the steel king, disliked monopolistic trusts. Nonetheless, ruthlessly destroying the businesses and lives of many people merely for personal profit; Carnegie attained a level of dominance and wealth never before seen in American history, but was only able to obtain this through acts that were dishonest and oftentimes, illicit.
But rather than having democracy as their forms, they ranged from oligarchy (“rule by the few”) to tyranny (“rule by the tyrant”) and the in betweens of timocracy (“rule by the wealthy”) and aristocracy (“rule by the best”). It was only in response to the crisis of corruption within their oligarch that Athens decided to start the Council of 500, and create the rule by the people (C). The power that the oligarchy held was divided among three bodies of democratic like government. The first was the ekklesia. The ekklesia was the people.
They did not come out of the military until they were 60. In Document A the statue represents the Spartan soldier and how military was everything to the Spartans. Athens did not focus on their military as heavily as Sparta did, but they did have an army of hoplites. They paid for their military service, and the military was open to every class. They fought only when it was necessary and died for the city, as it was the duty of all the citizens t... ... middle of paper ... ...men were given all the power in the household.
He introduced political reform Demokratia or “rule by the people.’ This included three separate institutions: Ekklesia, Boule, and Dikasteria. Ekklesia or assembly is the sovereign governing body of Athens. Any member of the 40,000 adult male citizens were welcome to attend the meetings of the Ekklesia, which were held 40 times a year in a hillside auditorium west of the Acropolis called the Pnyx. Usually only 5,000 men attended each session of the Assembly. The others were serving in the army or navy or working to support their families.
The king had little authority over civil matters such as creating laws for its people. The king of Sparta was mainly a commander on the battle field. The foundation of the Spartan government was a group called the Gerousia. The group consisted of 28 elders, over the age of 60, which the people of Sparta elected. The Gerousia came up with all of the laws and political policies in ancient Sparta.
T... ... middle of paper ... ... with the tribunes and the disaffected assembly against the Senate and patricians. The Senate feared Caesar and his popularity with the masses. The three men Pompey, Crassus and Caesar set aside their differences and establishing the First Triumvirate. This was overwhelming power in the Roman Republic but was strictly unofficial influence. The role of powerful general’s play in the decline of the Republic by Rome’s failures to adapt it city or state styles of government to ruling an empire triggered a century long pattern of events that would eventually lead to fall of the old oligarchy led by the Senate.
Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during antebellum America. The Jackson democrats attempted to aggrandize the puissance of lower classes poor while decreasing the influence of the rich and potent. Economically, they benefited from governing during a time of paramount advances in transportation, which boosted commerce and helped the common man. Politically, they invested power into an overwhelmingly powerful executive branch. The Jacksonian democrats portrayed themselves as saviors of the common people and ruled via a powerful executive who attempted to destroy aristocracy in America.
In 1787 there was a large tension between the elites and the underdogs over debt and tax relief. The delegates at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia worked to remedy this tension; however, they did so at the expense of the underdog, the indebted, suffering farmer, and for the benefit of the wealthy, who gained from the underdogs’ suffering. How did the delegates manage to design a constitution so biased towards the elite and how exactly did the document benefit the wealthy? Section I examines the interests of the indebted farmers and the wealth. Section II explains how the delegates came to design a constitution that benefited the upper class.