Genetically modifying foods is an imprecise experiment with widespread repercussions that is harmful to practically everyone involved and should be stopped. This relatively modern technology gives scientists the ability to change and swap the DNA make-up of any species. While this may seem like a breakthrough, it causes many problems for people who eat the modified food, for the plants that are changed, for the farmers who typically grow the original plants, and also for the environment. Another reason we should stop altering food is that no long-term tests have been done to see what side affects could occur, and in tests that have shown negative results these results are disregarded by the U.S. government. Big corporations are too busy making money to care if this will change our world as we know it forever.
This helps to create genetic diversity. Anaphase 1 is where the bivalents separate and the homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell. Telophase 1 is where the nuclear envelope reforms after disintegrating in prophase 1. Then cytokinesis is where the cell divides to create two new cells which are haploid (GENIE, 2010). The next main stage is meiosis 2 and this is where each chromosome is split into 2 sister chromatids.
Cloning is defined as the process of asexually producing a group of cells, all genetically identical, from a single ancestor (College Library, 2006).” Cloning should be banned all around the world for many reasons, including the risks to the thing that is being cloned, cloning reduces genetic differences and finally it is not ethical. Almost every clone has mysteriously died even before they are born. First of all, “Australia’s first cloned sheep appeared to be healthy and energetic the day she died, during the autopsy they could not find the cause (Castro, 2005).” There are many risks to cloning and you are seldom able to identify the cause of their death. “More than 90% of cloning attempts fail (Human Genome Program, 2006).” Most cloned animals died mysteriously even before they were born or when they were very young, so there is hardly any information on how clones age. Clones may be born with a normal looking body but may have internal functioning problems.
Also, human cloning infringes on having own identity rights. This means that human cloning infringes a right to ask that there is only me in the world. So, people do not allow cloning themselves because there should be only they in the world. Opponents also maintain that human cloning contribute to the advanced medical science. For example, in America, chemists sold medicine after animal testing but, it did not work well and after taking medicine, deformed children were born.
Human cloning still has a long way to go and much research is needed on this subject. Unfortunately, research is banned and society's ignorance prohibits such expansion in this field. Cloning is not as monstrous as the media makes it out to be. "It would be a shame if frightened politicians slammed the door on one of the most exciting and important scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century" (Dasbach, Libertarian Party 2). "Yes, cloning of human beings does raise serious ethical issues, but those issues are best addressed by individuals, doctors, and scientists-not politicians" (Dasbach, Libertarian Party 2).
First scientist isolate and egg cell and remove its nucleus. Then they isolate a somatic cell ( a cell in the body that is not the reproductive cell.) and transfer its nucleus into the egg cell. Then using electromagnetic pulses, the egg cell acts like a zygote and is placed in a surrogate mother. The famous cloned sheep, Dolly, was cloned this way.
Where will all the mess ups or unsuccessful clones remain at? All of this will cause the world to be overly populated, just in case they do not discard a human clone afterwards. It does not make any sense to me to clone a human if they exist or existed already. Many mistakes need to happen in order to get cloned the right way like: malformation, stillborn, or dying immediately after birth. The thought of performing the procedure over and over multiple times does not help the human mind and the society we are in.
Stem Cells Should Not Be Used Therapeutically A stem cell is a cell in the body that can differentiate into almost any other type of cell in the body. Stem cells come from sites in the bone marrow, as well as the tissues of developing fetuses. The most controversial issue in stem cell therapy is the use of fetuses for their stem cells. Scientists want to clone human embryos, and use the stem cells long before the embryo matures (when it is only about 36 cells). This causes a large amount of unease in society, because people fear that stem cells and therapeutic cloning will lead us into disgusting and horrible experimental practices, as well as therapies.
Finally, the companies testing methods are hazardous and deadly, and endanger the animal?s life- if they do not die first. Animal testing should be stopped and ban from ever being done again. Animal testing is not a requirement and therefore it does not have to be done. There are alternatives to animal testing and yet we fail to see them. By stopping animal testing, you can save hundreds of thousands of animals a year.
Cloning is unethical because cloning of any kind goes against human dignity and morals, and in turn harms animals and plants. Cloning would ultimately, “take the humanity out of human reproduction” (Kontrovoch 29). According to E.V. Kontrovoch, author of “Human Cloning is Inherently Unethical”, cloning would lead to kids in an orphanage to overflow because of the lack of adoption taking place due to couples wanting to clone instead (29). Kontrovoch also states life would be seen as worthless because there would always be the option to replace a life that was lost (29).