“Synopses and Quick Critiques.” Frank O’Connor: New Perspectives. Eds. Robert C. Evans and Richard Harp. West Cornwall, CT.: Locust Hill, 1988. 297-350.
The Four Quartets. London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1943. Gardner, Helen. The Composition of Four Quartets. London: Faber and Faber, 1978.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980. Nutt, Joe. John Donne: The Poems. London: Macmillan Press, 1999. Witherspoon Alexander M., and Warnke Frank J., ed.. Seventeenth Century Prose and Poetry.
Frost utilizes "West-Running Brook" as a catalyst towards an insightful philosophy comparing human existence to a west-running brook. The westward direction of the brook informs the reader of the poem’s focus on death due to the inherent archetypal associations between death and the sunset, which occurs in the west. "Running" and a stylistically choppy sentence structure convey the poet’s belief in the rapid and ephemeral pace of life. Repetition of the phrase "runs away" ("it runs away, it seriously sadly runs away") serves as a constant reminder of this transient aspect of life while adding an element of despair and loneliness. "The Frostian consciousness normally resides in the time-space continuum, and finds it extremely difficult to move behind or beyond…while remaining drenched in skepticism(Hart 442)."
"The Waste Land" refuses to provide a simple solution; the properties of the language serve to make for an ambiguous narrative and conclusion, one as confusing and fragmented as Eliot's era itself. Eliot wastes no time drawing out the first irony of the poem. In the first lines of "The Burial of the Dead," the speaker comments on Jesus' crucifixion and Chaucer while using brutal sounds to relate his spiritual coldness in a warm environment. In "The General Prologue" to The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer poetically writes "Whan that April with his showres soote/ The droughte of March hath perced to the roote,/ And bathed every veine in swich licour,/ Of which vertu engrendred is the flowr" (Norton Anthology to English Literature, sixth edition, vol. 1, p.81).
A Commentary on Homer's Odyssey. New York: Oxford UP, 1988. Jones, P.V. Homer's Odyssey: A Companion to the Translation of Richard Lattimore. Bedminster: Bristol Classic Press, 1988.
Eliot Companion: Life and Works, The Macmillan Press (1986) Southam, B.C., A Guide to the Selected Poems of T.S. Eliot, Harcourt Brace & Company Shashane, VA "Reflections on the Waste Land", Studies on IS Eliot Ed. A.N. Dwivedi; US Bahri Publishers (1989) Raffel, Burton IS Eliot Frederick Ungar Publising Co., Inc. (1982)
Katherine Anne Porter. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1988. Jorgensen, Bruce W. "The Other Side of Silence: Katherine Anne Porter's 'He' as Tragedy." Modern Fiction Studies 3 28 (1982). Moddelmog, Debra A.