During the flocculation treatment, coagulating chemicals are added to the raw water to bringing together destabilized or non-settleable solids (particularly colloids) to form large masses which can be settled and filtered out of water (“Water Treatment Process Control”, 2012). The addition of coagulating chemicals such aluminium sulphate is necessary in order to remove the organic particles present in the raw water and to change the colour of the water from cloudy to clear. When the raw water contains big quantities of algae and very turbid, aluminium sulphate usually doesn’t react quickly with the organic matter in water. The addition of anionic polyelectrolyte will help aluminium sulphate to react quicker with the organic matter. It’s attacks the colloidal particles of the water much faster, results in the formation of larger and heavier insoluble flocs, which settle much more easily.
Cheremisinoff, P. N. (1995). Handbook of water and wastewater treatment technology. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. 3. Binnie, C. & Kimber, M. (2009). Basic water treatment (4th ed.).
A spill or backflow of sewage due to a complete system malfunction could potentially be detrimental to the environment and local community. A precise system, of which must be compliant according to government standards, is critical to maintain low levels of wastes that are returned to neighboring water systems after treatment. Phase one in process of waste water treatment begins in the home, local businesses and community. Waste water from these buildings and surrounding areas travel through a pipe, or sewer which is sloped downward, and with the assistance of gravity, travels toward the waste water treatment plant. However, in larger communities or communities with unevenly leveled terrain, waste water cannot keep getting deeper to rely on gravity to transport the waste water and must pumped up by the assistance of a lift station so it may continue to travel to the water treatment plant.
1 2.1 Preliminary Treatment Preliminary treatment includes removal of gross solids such as large objects, rags, and grit. As shown in Fig. 1, first the inflowing water (influent) undergoes preliminary treatment through practices of screening and grit removal. Screening is simply water flowing through screens to remove large materials. While grit removal is the practice of adjusting the velocity of the influent to allow the settlement of sand, grit, and stones.
Purified water should be prepared using potable water as feed water. Purified water is used as excipients in manufacturing pharmaceuticals and for equipment cleaning, especially product contact surfaces of non-sterile chemicals. Types of purification used to produce this water include Deionisation, Distillation, Ion Exchange, Reverse Osmosis and Filtration. Purified water must meet ionic organic chemical and microbial requirements. The components that produce, store and circulate purified water must be sanitised and monitored frequently to avoid bio films forming.
In order to produce potable water, water treatment process must be conducted properly. According to Miller (2009), there are six important treatment processes which are coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, ion exchange, absorption, and disinfection. (Refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). Firstly, water is allowed to undergo coagulation process. The principle of coagulation process is to remove turbidity from the water, microorganisms, chemical in solution, colloidal and suspended solids (Binnie & Kimber, 2002).
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter, the general ideas of water treatment plant and water treatment process are introduced in the text below. The conventional method, treatment steps and water quality analysis are described in this chapter. 2.1 Water Treatment Plant Water treatment plant is an industrial scale processes which process the raw water that comes from river or other water resources and produce clean and acceptable water to end-user and can be used for drinking, industrial needs, etc. Basically, in the arena of public water supply, the functions of water treatment are to remove or reduce any unneeded existing contaminants or constituents in raw water which may pose a risk to public health before distributing to the community or user. From all of the parameters that were examined, turbidity is a characteristic related to the concentration of suspended solid particles in water and has been adopted as an easy and reasonably accurate measure of overall water quality.
Maki, J.S., 2002. Neuston microbiology: life at the air–water interface In: The Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology (Bitton, G., Ed. ), Wiley, New York, 2133–2144. 25. Norkrans, B., 1980.
Industrial facilities have become more efficient in their water use, however, an outrageous amount of water is still used in manufacturing processes. Companies recognize the inefficient use of freshwater that is needed for other reasons. Some companies have made to cut back water use, such as Dasani’s bottle that is partly made from plants, but ultimately freshwater is still being wasted in the process. Once the freshwater is used to produce the bottle, cap, and label, the water then has to be re-filtered. After the production of the pieces to the bottles of water, the freshwater used to create, treat, and sanitize becomes dirty.
The primary method of waste handling for confinement operations is anaerobic lagoons (Midwest Plan Service, 1987). In this method, animal waste is washed from the confinements or housing units to a lagoon and diluted with fresh water. Lagoons allow for solids, from the manure, to settle to the bottom of the lagoon and the ammonium to volatilize. The animal waste to dilution water ratio in a lagoon is typically 1:10. Anaerobic lagoons, although generally safe, do present potential water quality problems.