Water Treatment Process

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Clean water supply is essential in establishing and maintaining a healthy community. There are two sources of water supply which are the surface water and ground water. Most natural waters are not suitable for consumption as it is contaminated by pathogens and also natural chemicals and minerals. In addition, as a city grew, wastes from human activities contaminate most of the water supplies. Water treatment plays an important role to properly treat a contaminated source of water supply in order to protect the health of consumers. Water treatment process is defined as a process of eliminating pollutants from untreated water to produce a biologically and chemically risk-free water, which is both potable and palatable for human consumption (SAJ Holdings Sdn Bhd., n.d.). There are six important steps in water treatment process, namely screening, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and lastly, disinfection (refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1). The first step in water treatment process is screening. Raw water undergoes physical screening to remove coarse material and debris as it comes to the water treatment plant. Screening separates particles according to their size alone. As mentioned by Hendricks (2006), the objective of the screen is to accept a feed containing a mixture of particles of various sizes and separate it into two fractions, an underflow that is passed through the screen and an overflow that is rejected by the screen. (p. 121) Screening is further divided into coarse and fine screens. Raw water undergoes coarse screen to eliminate floating material of fairly large size as preliminary treatment for the next step. These floating or submerged debris would damage pumps or block inlets, hence it i... ... middle of paper ... ...ater treatment. London, UK: Thomas Telford Limited. Hendricks, D. W. (2006). Water treatment unit processes: Physical and chemical. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group. Horan, N. J. (1993). Biological wastewater treatment systems: Theory and operation. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Jin, Y. C., Guo, Q. G., & Viraraghavan, T. (2000). Modeling of class I settling tanks. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 126(8), 754-760. McGhee, T. J. (1991). Water supply and sewerage (6th ed.). Singapore, Singapore: McGraw-Hill. SAJ Holdings Sdn Bhd. (n.d.). Water treatment process. Retrieved from http://www.saj.com.my/Default.php. Shun, D. L. (2007). Water and wastewater calculations manual. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Wormleaton, P. R., & Tsang, C. C. (2000). Aeration performance of rectangular planform labyrinth weirs. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 126(5), 456-465.

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