Water: Chemical, Chemical And Chemical Quality Of Water

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1. Water quality parameters that are a matter of concern during the treatment process may be grouped into physical, chemical, bacteriological and microscopic categories: - Physical quality of water is determined by a core of characteristics (such as temperature, viscosity, and surface tension) as well as by colloidal and dissolved substances in the water. Thus, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, color, taste and odor are determined by the presence of dissolved and colloidal substances in the water. However, the color in water is the result of the presence of minerals such as manganese and iron or decaying plant substances such as algae and weeds (vegetable origin substances). Color shows the efficacy of the water treatment system, thus…show more content…
For instance, substances can be toxic such as arsenic, chromium. While other substance results in a hard or scale forming in the water, such as calcium carbonate (temporary hardness) or chloride, sulphate (permanent hardness). Other chemical substances (dissolved inorganic) may affect the taste and odor of the water, such as sodium chloride, calcium sulphate. An indication of the general organic quality of the water can be obtained by (TOC), (DOC, dissolved organic carbon), (COD), and (BOD) parameters. On the other hand, pH is also known as physio-chemical water properties, thus pH has physical characteristics, yet they are in actual fact chemicals in nature. However, pH is an indicator of relative alkalinity or acidity of water. Low pH values help in effective chlorination but result in problems with corrosion. pH ˂ 4 generally do not support living organisms in the aquatic environment. Drinking water should have a pH of (6.5 - 8.5). Besides, Alkalinity of water is a measure of its acid neutralizing capacity. Alkalinity plays an enormous role to buffer water and prevent changes in pH values due to addition of acid, or acid producing chemicals such as ferric chloride. Chemical stability of water is a very important characteristic since it determines whether water will be chemically stable, aggressive corrosive or scale forming. We can…show more content…
or any floating organic or inorganic materials, sometimes done by adding a chemical to control the growth of algae. Also, at a first step a pre sedimentation stage can settle out sand, grit and gravel from raw water. At this point, water quality sample can be run for odor, tastes, algae reduction, and (TSS) as a result of per chemical /per sedimentation process. In addition to flow measurement (to estimate the load and chemical needed). Coagulation, is the next step that microbes particle, dirt, silt, sand, organic debris that still suspended in the raw water after the pretreatment process which will be removed by adding chemical such as alum that is gently mixed or merged with small particle to form tiny sticky particles known as “floc” and by becoming together it will form large and heavy solids that settle more quickly due to gravity. At this point, water quality sample can be run for pH

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