Water Quality and Health Council - Wastewater - Wastewater Chlorination: An Enduring Public Health Practice. Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://www.waterandhealth.org/wastewater/chlorination.php3 3-T Engineering (2003). Wastewater Treatment. Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://www.calvin.edu/academic/engineering/senior-design/SeniorDesign03-04/Team17/wwt.html
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Global fisheries are living on borrowed time. The generally expressed objective of fishery management: to catch the maximum yield that a population can sustain. However, most stocks are being removed faster than they can reproduce and so are actually being mined rather than harvested. Coastal ecosystems produce more than 90% of the food provided by marine ecosystems. Coral reefs alone produce 10-12% of the fish caught in tropical countries and 20-25% of the fish caught by developing nations.
"Water Fluoridation Crucial For Community Health." Nation's Health 32.2 (2002): 6. Academic Search Premier. Web. 19 Oct. 2013.
The procurability of potable water per capita is scarce and is currently diminishing worldwide. Scientific surveys estimate that the Earth’s surface is relatively seventy-one percent water and twenty-nine percent land. Unfortunately, a substantial amount of the seventy-one percent of water is salty and non-potable. Only about one percent of the available seventy-one percent can only be utilized for human consumption, without requiring initial desalinization. It has been predicted by the United Nations that due to population growth and various other factors that the average person’s water supply will be limited by a third over the next twenty years.
13-14. Pizzi, Nicholas G. (2010). Water Treatment, Principles and practices of water supply operations series. USA: American Water Works Association, p 8. Kerri, K. D. (2008).
On a global basis fresh water, or drinking water, makes up only a very small amount of all water. Most water on Earth is in the oceans (97 percent). The remaining portion (~3 percent) is in frozen (in glaciers) or is below the land surface, i.e., groundwater found in aquifers. Amazingly all the water in lakes, inland seas, rivers, and the atmosphere amounts to only 0.023 percent (or two parts per ten-thousand) of all the water on our planet. Of the fresh drinking water available to us, 72 percent is frozen, which leaves... ... middle of paper ... ...ter for irrigating nonfood crops with great success (Gleick).
Water covers over seventy percent of earth’s surface, but only about three percent of that water is available for human use as freshwater. The main source of freshwater is permanent ice sheets, which makes up sixty-nine percent of global freshwater. The remaining supply of global freshwater is divided between groundwater and underwater aquifers, but groundwater makes up only one percent of global freshwater. Underwater aquifers makes up thirty percent of freshwater and is where the majority of Texas’s water demand is satisfied. There are many contributors to water usage, but agriculture, home use, and industry, occupy the top three spots of major water consumers.
There is a global shortage of drinking water. A person might wonder how this can be if seventy percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water. Most of the Earth’s water is unsuitable for human consuption. Ocean water is salt water, which makes up 97.5% of all water on the planet. Freshwater is only 3.5% of all the water on Earth.
The water stress index is defined by the scarcity of renewable water that is available per person every year compared to the amount of water resources available the the population of region. The Global Water Forum indicates that “if the amount of renewable water in a country is below 1,700 m3 per person per year, that country is said to be experiencing water stress; below 1,000 m3 it is said to be experiencing water scarcity; and below 500 m3, absolute water scarcity” (Global Water Forum). Water scarcity is becoming more apparent not only in third world countries, but also worldwide. “About 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered in water. Though it seems abundant, just 1% of world’s water is fresh (not salty) and available (not frozen).