The Warren Court refers to the Supreme Court of the United States between 1953 and 1969, when Earl Warren served as Chief Justice. The Warren Courts were the catalyst for change in the areas of discrimination based on factors of faith, race or other categorizations was the catalyst for the evolution of reappointment and voting, established Maranda, and laid the ground work for woman to have the right to make decisions concerning own reproduction rights. The Honorable Earl Warren served as the chief justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1953-1969. During his time on the bench, the Court utilized Judicial Review to analyze and overturn both federal and state statues. This was accomplished but applying the provisions set forth in the …show more content…
Board of Education; in which the court overturned the 1896 Supreme Court decision of Plessy V. Ferguson, which allowed for societal segregation. The Court made its decision based on the violation of the Equal Protection Clause found in the 14 amendment. The overruling of Brown was the catalyst that lead to the advancement of Civil …show more content…
The Court also created an evolution in legislative reapportionment cases. Reynolds V. Sim lead to State legislatures being forced to be distributed equally, based on population, instead of geographic areas. Criminal Procedure Miranda V. Arizona may be considered to the most controversial criminal procedure case. The result was that law enforcement must inform people who are being arrested of their right to remain silent, and their right to have an attorney pressing for questioning. Right to Privacy Griswold V. Connecticut may have been the most significant of the Warren Courts Rulings: it struck down a Connecticut statute that banned the dissemination of information concerning birth control, which can be considered the foundation of Roe V. Wade, which provided prochoice rights to women. Earl Warren was the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme court form from 1953-1969. During his tenure he made efforts to create a more “libertarian and egalitarian society.” The Court during this period contributed to ridding society of discrimination based on factors of faith, race or other categorizations was the catalyst for the evolution of reappointment and voting, established Maranda, and laid the ground work for woman to have the right to make decisions concerning own reproduction
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Separate but equal, judicial review, and the Miranda Rights are decisions made by the Supreme Court that have impacted the United States in history altering ways. Another notable decision was made in the Tinker v. Des Moines Case. Ultimately the Supreme Court decided that the students in the case should have their rights protected and that the school acted unconstitutionally. Justice Fortas delivered a compelling majority opinion. In the case of Tinker v Des Moines, the Supreme Court’s majority opinion was strongly supported with great reasoning but had weaknesses that could present future problems.
Based on the pronouncements of the court on May 17, 1954, everyone in the courtroom was shocked after it became clear that Marshall was right in his claim about the unconstitutionality of legal segregation in American public schools. Essentially, this court’s decision became a most important turning point in U.S. history because the desegregation case had been won by an African American attorney. Additionally, this became a landmark decision in the sense that it played a big role in the crumbling of the discriminatory laws against African Americans and people of color in major socioeconomic areas, such as employment, education, and housing (Stinson, 2008). Ultimately, Marshall’s legal achievements contributed significantly to the criminal justice field.
The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court, by Bob Woodward and Scott Armstrong, gives the public an intimate description of the justices who serve on the Supreme Court in the 1969-1976. This book also gives an unprecedented look at the daily work and personal lives of the justices. The book describes the relationships the justices have with each other and the relationships they have with their clerks. Woodward and Armstrong give the reader insight to the justice's personalities and their personal agenda. There is an appearance that the justices use their positions on the Supreme Court to push their ideologies and create laws instead of enforcing the laws set by congress.
Earl Warren is considered a leader in American politics and law in the 20th century. Warren was the governor of California and during his time was able to secure many major reform legislations that helped modernize hospital systems, prisons, and highways. His time as governor also led to the expansion of the old-age and unemployment benefits. In 1953, he became the 14th Chief of Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. As Chief of Justice, he was able to rewrite much of the corpus of constitutional law. His most famous case as Chief of Justice was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. This case ruled that segregation in schools was unconstitutional since it did not give equal protection under the law to African Americans. Although the court was divided at first, his efforts were able to gain a unanimous decision. His court also sought out electoral reforms, equality in criminal justice and the defense of human rights. In 1963, Gideon v. Wainwright was a major case that sought equality in criminal justice. This case required counsel in court for defendants even if they could not afford
These early Supreme Court decisions have made a lasting impression on the United States. Marbury v. Madison established the concept of judicial review that strengthened the ability of the judcicary to act as a check against the legislative and executive branches by providing for the review of Congressional acts by the judiciary to determine the constitutionality of such acts. McCulloch v. Maryland allowed for the expansion of Congress’ implied powers needed to execute its delegated powers as well as defined the supremacy of constitutionally enacted federal entities over state statutes.
In the case of Marbury v. Madison, William Marbury a federalist, sued James Madison, current Secretary of State to deliver his supreme court commission. Chief Justice John Marshall, who himself was a Federalist, ruled on the side of James Madison and setting the precedence of the supreme court being able to determine what is or isn’t constitutional (Lau & Johnson. 2014).
Such precedent setting decisions are usually derived from the social, economic, political, and legal philosophy of the majority of the Justices who make up the Court, and also represent a segment of the American population at a given time in history. Seldom has a Supreme Court decision sliced so deeply into the basic fabric that composes the tapestry and direction of American law or instigated such profound changes in cherished rights, values, and personal prerogatives of individuals: the right to privacy, the structure of the family, the status of medical technology and its impact upon law and life, and the authority of state governments to protect the lives of their citizens.(3-4)
The court case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) is credited and widely believed to be the creator of the “unprecedented” concept of Judicial Review. John Marshall, the Supreme Court Justice at the time, is lionized as a pioneer of Constitutional justice, but, in the past, was never really recognized as so. What needs to be clarified is that nothing in history is truly unprecedented, and Marbury v. Madison’s modern glorification is merely a product of years of disagreements on the validity of judicial review, fueled by court cases like Eakin v. Raub; John Marshall was also never really recognized in the past as the creator of judicial review, as shown in the case of Dred Scott v. Sanford.
During the years the Supreme Court has gone through some changes of its’ own. While Chief Justice Earl Warren was there the first African-American Justice was named to the court: Thurgood Marshall. Chief Justice Warren’s leadership marked a force in social issues. Along the lines of desegregation, election reform and the rights of defendants.
Friedman, L. (1978). The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers, 5, 291-292.