Visual Impairment And Visual Impairments

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I chose Frances Mary D’Andrea as a contributor to the field of the visual impairments because she contributed a lot especially in the area of the Braille literacy for students with visual impairments. Frances Mary D’Andrea, Ph.D., is an instructor at the University of Pittsburgh and an educational consultant specializing in literacy issues related to students with visual impairments. I would like to mention about her background in the first section of my paper. She got her Bachelor degree from George Peabody College for Teachers in the area of Special Education for visual impairments, Special Education for mild/moderate handicaps, and Elementary Education in 1982. After she graduated from the college, she began to work as a teacher of students with visual impairments. After that, she got her Master of Education degree from Georgia State University in the area of Special Education for visual impairments in 1996. Between the years 1995 and 2005 she worked at the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) and helped establish their National Literacy Center. This center provided professional development opportunities and resources for educators of students and adults who were blind or visually impaired. Then she got her Ph.D. degree from University of Pittsburgh in the area of Special Education in 2010. She has co-authored a number of textbooks: "Instructional Strategies for Braille Literacy"; "Looking to Learn: Literacy for Students Who Have Low Vision"; and "Assistive Technology for Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired." She is also currently Chair of the Braille Authority of North America (BANA) and has served as AFB 's representative to BANA since 1998. The mission of the BANA is to assure literacy for tactile readers throu... ... middle of paper ... ...D’Andrea (2013), there is a new trend on the Braille is Unified English Braille (UEB), and it is accepted as the future of the Braille. The International Council on English Braille (ICEB) worked on the new English Braille code. UEB is the most recent Braille literacy code used in English-speaking countries: South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Canada, The United Kingdom, and the United States. D’Andrea (2013) also wrote, “UEB is designed to be more “computable” than the current code; that is, it is easier to use transcription software to create accurate braille from electronic print files using UEB, and it has more flexible rules and fewer exceptions to those rules (p. 246). The Board of BANA voted to adopt Unified English Braille (UEB) in the United States in 2012, and at Frances Mary D’Andrea was part of the process because she was the chair of the BANA.
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