2013; 7. Van der Vlist M, van der Aar AMG, Gringhuis SI, Geijtenbeek TBH. Innate signaling in HIV-1 infection of dendritic cells. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011;6:348–52.
Bacteria are known as large groups of unicellular microorganism that have cell walls but lack organelles, a nucleus, and bacteria are also prokaryotic. Viruses are infectious agents that consist of a nucleic acid molecule and replicates only within the cells of living host. Prions are miss formed proteins that are proteinases infectious agents responsible for fatal neurodegenerative in animals and humans. Prions are inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, and surgical instruments. The structures of all three of these subjects are very different.
Investigations have reported that a lot of individuals sufferfrom the long term forms of HBV infection including chronic, asymptomatic and occult (OBI) hepatitis B infection[8, 9]. Hepatitis B virus is a partially double-stranded circular DNA virus and is a member of the Hepadnaviridae family. The virus consists of a core capsid which contains viral DNA and this is surrounded by an envelope containing surface antigen (HBsAg). Both whole, intact virions and incomplete virus particles, consisting entirely of HBsAg, are produced during replication of HBV. The HBsAg particles vary greatly in morphology and are found in high concentrations in early acute infection and continue to be produced in chronic disease.
Viruses each have a very specific structure, that doesn’t vary all to much from virus to virus. Each one has three main parts; The outer capsid, which is comprised of protein subunits encases the nucleic acid, and then there is a spike or spikes that protrude and are used for infecting hosts. Bacteria also have three main structural regions. Each on has appendages in the form of flagella or pili, and these are used for movement. Each also has a cell envelope consisting of a capsule, cell wall, and a plasma membrane.
Arch. Virol. 158, 1221-1226 (2013). 2. J. L. Huff, P. A. Barry, B-Virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) Infection in Humans and Macaques: Potential for Zoonotic Disease.
Viruses: Complex Molecules or Simple Life Forms? Viruses have been defined as "entities whose genomes are elements of nucleic acid that replicate inside living cells using the cellular synthetic machinery, and cause the synthesis of specialised elements that can transfer the genome to other cells." They are stationaryand are unable to grow. Because of all these factors, it is debatable whether viruses are the most complex of molecules or the simplest life forms. While the definition of living organisms must be adapted, the majority of evidence leads to the classification of viruses as living organisms.
Although viruses are responsible for many diseases, it has been debated whether or not they are organisms based of how the reproduce, which they do so by manipulating a host species. The general structure of viruses includes a polygonal capsid, spikes, and an envelope around the DNA. The capsid surrounds the nucleic acid and the spike are the receptors. These receptors are host specific. Viruses can effect humans, animals, plants, and bacteria.
Ribonucleic acid is very versatile with its build and functions. In the lives of DNA and RNA, each goes through processes known as replication, translation, meiosis and mitosis (Hall, 16, 18). During one of these processes, mutations can occur; one of these mutations can be the cause of oncogenic viruses (Hall, 53). RNA is an essential molecule that deals with coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes (Epigenetics Modifications and Viral Infections, 2007-2014). When it comes down to epigenetic alterations in oncogenic viruses, it leads to the discovery of how viruses can infect our cells through inheritance such as some cancers.
2) A protein which is extremely important in a hazardous virus because is provides a strong, protective barrier as the virus passes from cell to cell.2 Viruses do not contain the enzymes and metabolic pressures needed for self-duplication. The missing components are taken from the host cells they infect. Replication begins when the virus enters the cell. The enzymes remove the coat of the virus, and the RNA or DNA particles come in contact with the ribosomes in the cell. The virus then finds the protein by using the nucleic acid.
The study of viruses, bacteria, and protists has been going on for some time now. A virus is classified as an infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat; it is too small to be seen by a light microscope. A virus is also able to multiply only within the living cells of a host. A bacterium is classified as a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls, but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease. Protists are a large and diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, which belong to the kingdom Protista.