The narrator of Henry James’ Daisy Miller contributes to the novella’s realism, as defined by James himself in his essay “The Art of Fiction,” by creating a narrator who acts as an observer to the events described in the story rather than an omniscient narrator who informs the reader of the thoughts of the characters. Rather than focusing on the internal workings of the character’s minds, James focuses on the external details which offers the reader a realistic perspective of the characters and leaves moral judgment to the readers. James states in “The Art of Fiction” that “the only reason for the existence of the novel is that it does attempt to represent life” (322). The novella begins, after a short description of setting, with “I” (281). The “I” refers to the unnamed character who acts as a first person limited omniscient narrator limited to the point of view of Winterbourne.
These, of course, transformed into modifications in literature (Richter 3,4). Conventional forms of writing did not portray truth, but rather dealt with certain aspects of life that were distorted and then pieced together via descriptions, coincidences, and transition passages (Blackstone 13). Feminine sensibility was an aspect that could be brought into the novel, and therefore Woolf employed new forms and techniques to her novels (Bernard 12). Through these changes, she consciously made the decision to change the novel from a genre that was developed and dominated by men, to a form that would depict the “movement of things under the surface--the free play of thought, emotion, insight” (Blackstone 12-13). Due to the transforming atmosphere of the time, Woolf was allowed to explore new territories.
Instead, meaning, like modernism, engenders its own multiplicity in Joyce's works, diffuses into something necessarily plural: meanings. An ontological crisis is inextricable from this crisis of meaning and representation. In Joyce's stories the reader is displaced from her/his traditionally passive role as receptor of the knowledge an author seeks to impart, and "positioned as both reader and writer of text, in some ways playing as integral a part in constructing the work as the author does. (Benstock 17)" In the novel's opening story, "The Sisters," Joyce elevates this concern with writing "reality" from sub-theme to theme: the story is an extended meditation on textuality just as much as it is the story of a boy and a priest. By beginning with a metatext Joyce brilliantly opens up the entire collection for a different kind of reading, one based on noticing rather than overlooking literature's limitations.
The play was composed to challenge traditional theatre, perspectives, morals, and conventions of a society enduring enormous changes contextually. Stoppard only takes from the plot of Shakespeare to produce a unique drama, for Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. At the same time as Stoppard explores the ideas Shakespeare proven in his original text as he is mostly confined to the theme of Hamlet; death, direction in life, order in society and truth the two approaches it in a very different way. Stoppard makes use of a play in another play to shadow the line that outlines re... ... middle of paper ... ... as laypeople. The language in the texts of the dramas plays a key role, too.
Metafiction, loosely defined as fiction about fiction, provides an intriguing perspective on literature. J.M. Coetzee’s novel Foe and Margaret Atwood’s short story “Happy Endings” are able to provide a commentary on fiction writing while still retaining their own identities. Both authors offer criticism of fiction writing as connected to gender issues, societal expectations, and the process and components of fiction writing itself. In order to become metafictional, Coetzee and Atwood had to make readers aware of what they were reading.
Barth redefines this relationship as one of inherent, but not defined, meaning by entering into self-reflexivity and consciousness as the novel progresses. Barth furthers the deconstructive project by asserting LF’s fictionality to engage the reader in play, rather than a passive consumption of authorial intent. (Worthington) As Lost in the Funhouse is constitutive of many stories that are about the inability of traditional narrative meeting contemporary needs, “the old analogy between Author and God…can no longer be employed” (LF 125). The novel begs the question of what literature can do if the medium is “moribund..if not already dead.” (LF... ... middle of paper ... ...y of Autobiography in John Barth's Lost in the Funhouse." Studies in Short Fiction 34.2 (1997): 151.
New York: Columbia UP, 1997. Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1979. --- .
He describes this approach (known as the phenomenology of reception) as “text as an intentional object whose communicatory effect can be brought out only by the reader’s active assumption of a role de... ... middle of paper ... ...discovered, there is no single definition of the lyric, so my analysis of the works illustrated here indicate there is no single meaning obvious to anything read. As with the class, perhaps meaning is constantly determined every time a new reader engages the text. Works Cited - Calvino, Italo. If On a Winter's Night a Traveler. Torino: Guilio Einaudi Editore, 1979.