Punishments may include death, imprisonment, exile, fines, forfeiture of property, removal from public office, and disqualification from holding such office. Unless the act of which a defendant is accused is expressly defined by statute as a crime, no indictment or conviction for the commission of such an act can be legally sustained. This provision is important in establishing the difference between government by law and arbitrary or dictatorial government. Under common law, a crime was generally classified as treason, felony, or misdemeanor, but many offenses could not be defined exactly, and the rule was adopted that any immoral act tending to the prejudice of the community was, per se, a crime, and punishable by the courts. Crimes are now usually classified as mala in se, which includes acts, such as murder, so offensive to morals as to be obviously criminal; and mala prohibita, which are violations of specific regulatory statutes, such as traffic violations, that ordinarily would not be punishable in the absence of statutory enactments prohibiting the commission of such acts.
However there has been a lot of controversy over whether or not violent media links to violence in real life. Most people believe it is just used for entertainment, nothing else. Others believe, with the recent shootings and bombings, that the violent media links to theses events. Violence in media is just a risk factor that can cause aggressive behavior among observers. So to an extent, violent media does cause violence in real life; however, knowing the difference between reality and fantasy is also a factor.
5.0 Conclusion Form the research carried out, it is evident that there is no single theory which can adequately provide all the explanations in relation to crime since a crime patterns entail several phenomena. It is important to note that much as criminological theories attempt to explain the causes of criminal behavior, other measures that are not necessarily theoretical, can be employed in order to fight and reduce crime rates. On the same note, further research has to be carried out so that crime rates can be further reduced.
The causes and roots of violence are a subject of endless debates. Every time we look back at our history, as far as the point that we could reach, violent and aggressive behaviors could be easily tracked. Stories of people who committed such acts are indicating that violent and aggression are parts of the human civilization from the primitive lives of yesterday to our modern lives today. What is aggression? “Aggression is a behavior characterized by strong self-assertion with hostile or harmful tones.
However biological reasons cannot solely be the cause of criminal behavior. Therefore, one must look to other sources as to how a criminal mind is developed. Social and environmental factors also are at fault for developing a person to the point at which they are lead to committing a criminal act. Often, someone who has committed a violent crime shows evidence of a poorly developed childhood, or the unsuitable current conditions in which the subject lives. In addition if one studies victimology which is the role that the victim plays in the crime, it is apparent that there are many different causes for criminal behavior.
Statistics on crime rates, violent crimes, racial involvement, and juvenile crime are often misrepresented, allowing a fear of crime by society. These crime myths tend to cause public fear to turn to more punitive solutions and harsh penalties for criminals. However, many Americans also desire to rehabilitate and examine the underlying causes of crime. To understand the possible forms of punishment, one may look at the ... ... middle of paper ... ... the past several decades as a tough on crime approach has been adopted in the United States. According to Barkan and Bryjak, this approach has not served as a deterrent to crime.
Crime is legally defined as “acts which break or contravene the letter of the law” (Mooney et al., 2004, pg 6). There is, however, another definition of what crime is, “acts which break or contravene a set of formal or informal norms or codes” (Mooney et al., 2004, pg 6), the normative definition. The two definitions of crime are quite different; there is no one predetermined definition of what is meant by the term ‘crime’, therefore, it is socially constructed. Evidence suggests that the fear of crime is growing in today’s society. It is assumed that crime is getting worse; “we have got used to thinking of crime, like the weather and pop music, as something that is always getting worse” (Reiner in Mooney et al., 2004, pg 11).
Eye witness testimonies are used to convict accused criminals due to the first hand nature of the eye witnesses’ observations. There are however many faults within this system of identification. Characteristics of the crime is the first issue that will be discussed in this paper, and the flaws that have been identified. The second issue to be discussed will be the stress impact and the inability to correctly identify the accused in a violent or weapon focused crime. The third issue to be discussed is inter racial identification and the problems faced when this becomes a prominent issue.
However we can decompose it and comprehend the development process of the crime in order to provide and accomplish an approachable way to understand the science behind it. The possible interpretations for criminal behavior seem to be infinite and even someone who does not possess the skills or the intelligence, in order to get away with a crime develops new evil ways to do it. The human mind keeps evolving at the idea of how the crime has changed in the past 50 years and how it will be after 50 more. It’s just terrifying and may be far beyond logical reasoning for the human imagination. Τhe basic view of the definition of crime does not take into account that certain behaviours are considered punishable while others are not.
In order to define what victim’s facilitation, precipitation, and provocation terms mean; therefore, there would have to be some explanation for who is consider victims of crime. A victim is a person who suffered from a crime directly, mentally, physically, and financially. Anyone can be or become a victim of a crime. Victims were rarely recognized in the laws and policies that the governors of our nations fail to realize until 1970's. (Schmalleger & Smyklar, 2015) The legislation was too busy trying to make out if victims had rights in law as it relates to crime.