Television programming today can be a powerful influence in developing value systems and shaping behavior (Bee, 1998: 261-262). Unfortunately, much of today's television programming is violent. For instance, the level of violence during Saturday morning cartoons is higher than the level of violence during prime time. There are about six to eight violent acts per hour during prime time, versus twenty to thirty violent acts per hour on Saturday morning cartoons ("Killing Screens," 1994). Also, well before children finish their grade school, they will witness up to 8,000 murders and 100,000 violent acts on television (Levine, 1995: 143).
Moreover, children spend more time learning about life through media than in any other manner. The average child spends approximately twenty-seven hours per week watching television, which means that children spend most of their time only watching television and sleeping (Minow & LaMay, 1995: 32-33). Also, it has been proven by many studies that there is a positive relationship between television violence and behavioral problems in children. For example, research by Wood, Wong, and Chachere (1991:378) have shown that "exposure to media violence increase viewers' aggression."
This paper will discuss that repeated exposure of young children and adolescents can negatively effect children's behavior. This negative behavior can be acted out by imitation of violent acts observed on television, by accepting violence as a way to solve problems, and by desensitization to the amount of violence seen on television. Also, it will discuss how parents and teachers can prevent excessive viewing of television violence in children and adolescents.
Children between the ages of one to fo...
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Levine, Suzanne, B. "A Variety of Measures Could Combat Media Violence." Violence
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Hill and Wang, 1995.
Rosengren, Karl, E., Ulla Johnsson-Smaragdi, and Inga Sonesson. "For Better and for
Worse: Effects Studies and Beyond." Media Effects and Beyond. Ed. Karl E.
Wood, Wendy, Frank Y. Wong, and J. Gregory Chachere. "Effects of Media Violence
on Viewers' Aggression in Unconstrained Social Interaction." Psychological
Bulletin 109.3 (1991): 371-383.
In this essay, the author
Compares the level of violence during saturday morning cartoons with that during prime time. children will witness up to 8,000 murders and 100,000 violent acts before grade school.
Explains that children spend more time learning about life through media than in any other manner. the average child spends approximately twenty-seven hours per week watching television.
Explains that repeated exposure of young children and adolescents can negatively affect children's behavior. this can be acted out by imitation of violent acts observed on television, by accepting violence as a way to solve problems, and by desensitization to the amount of violence seen on tv.
Explains that children between the ages of one to four cannot always distinguish reality from fantasy. television programs are often fantasy, yet their favorite character does not exist in the real world.
Explains that young children imitate actions without possessing the intellect or maturity to determine if such actions are appropriate. televisions' role-model capacity to promote real world violence causes children to become more aggressive.
Suggests that young children will imitate violent acts seen on television and model themselves to the character they like, if the perpetrator of the violence is rewarded or at least not punished.
Explains that children may be more aggressive toward other children or even their parents, in order to get what they want. in most violent programs, the aggressor is often rewarded for his or her violent and aggressive behavior towards others.
Explains that the most telling example of children's aggression can be seen after children see an advertisement on a desirable toy.
Explains that children generally do not understand that advertised toys or other products cost money, and many of which may be well over family budget. if children learn from violent television programs that aggressive behavior may get them what they want, they will try to make their parents buy them a desirable toy.
Explains that children are exposed to enormous amounts of violence before they finish grade school, which can have a negative effect on their behavior as children and adults. leonard eron followed children from eight years of age into their adulthood.
Explains that aggressive children prefer watching violent programs on television because aggressive behavior leads to peer rejection.
Explains that children may not watch violent television programs for violence, but for the action that is portrayed in most violent programs. however, not many studies have been conducted in this manner.
Explains that children who are exposed to violent television programs may become emotionally "desensitized" or less sensitive to real life violence.
Analyzes how violent television programs portray racial minorities as less powerful and poorer than the majority.
Explains that repeated viewing of violent television programs can lead to "a mean world syndrome," a belief that violence is more salient and frequent on television than it is in most life experiences.
Explains that although there are behavioral problems with children who watch excessive amounts of violence, television programs can also have a positive effect on children of all ages.
Explains that children learn how to behave from what they see on television, and the impact of television violence may be evident immediately or it may surface later in life. parents should pay attention to the programs their children are watching and they should also watch with them.
Recommends that parents set limits on the amount of time they spend watching television and challenge television's power with other alternatives, such as reading or playing with friends.
Recommends that parents disapprove of violent programs in front of their children, stressing the belief that such behavior is not the best way to solve a problem.
Argues that parents should demand the installation of a device called the v-chip into every television set.
Argues that parents should demand critical thinking be taught in all schools to encourage children to watch critically and thoughtfully.
Concludes that extensive viewing of violent television by children has the potential to cause greater aggressiveness. parents and teachers should take measures to prevent harmful effects their children are susceptible to television violence, such as aggression, racial and sexual stereotyping.
Cites abbot, william, carol wekesser, bee, helen, and buckingham, david.
Cites petley's book, why wewatch: the attractions of violent entertainment, and greenfield, patricia.
Cites sut jhally's "killing screens: media and the culture of violence".
Cites rosengren, karl, ulla johnsson-smaragdi, and inga sonesson. "for better and forworse: effects studies and beyond."
“National Institute of Mental Health concludes TV violence contributes to increased aggression in youth” (Christina L. Lyons). Violence in children 's media have been increasing dramatically lately as violent acts and crimes increase as well. Most people think that violence in media does not affect children 's lives and the way they interact with others. People believe violent media has no impact in children 's health. But in fact, violent media make violence seem so normal that children start feeling satisfaction when violent acts are being committed. Steven J. Kirsh states “ individuals use TV, movies, video games and other forms of media to have rewarding experiences...violent entertainment must somehow provide fulfillment for children
In this essay, the author
Analyzes how children are being exposed to violent content through video games, television shows, and advertisements. violent or explicit content has always been intended for a mature audience and not for children under seventeen.
Explains that some parents and researchers believe that exposing children to violent media has no effect on the social life and behavior of the child.
Analyzes how children's minds are like sponges and exposing them to violence only teaches them that violence is fine.
Explains how the government has been reacting to violence in the media because of the obvious effects it has on children and adolescents.
Explains that violence in children's media has been increasing dramatically as violent acts and crimes increase as well. the us government decided to enforce some sort of protection to prevent the negative effect violent media was having in adolescents.
In virtually all American households, a television is present. Through this electronic device, the public receives different messages. The main use of the television is for entertainment purposes. The programs on television usually mirror and enhance the different aspects of American culture. People ranging from infants to elderly adults watch television, the subject matter that is appropriate for these different age groups varies. Yet, television is indiscriminate of age presenting any topic to whoever chooses to view it. The television of today contains various aspects of society and enhances it, creating an entertaining program. One of these aspects is violence. Young children learn through imitation; one venue by which they gain examples to imitate is television. Thus exposure to excessive television violence has negative effects on the young people who view it.
In this essay, the author
Explains that television is indiscriminate of age, presenting any topic to whoever chooses to view it. it contains various aspects of society and enhances it, creating an entertaining program.
Explains that television violence is harmful to children's health and welfare. it causes children to fear the world around them, become numb to violence, accept violence as a normal response to conflict, or act aggressively.
Explains that the national television violence study, 1994-1995 found in the education digest contains some startling facts about violence on television.
Explains the effects of television violence on children simply by observing kids pretending to be batman, teenage mutant ninja turtles, and power rangers. these heroes are chosen not due to character, but by physical strength.
Opines that television is an instrument that teaches children about our culture. it could be used to teach tolerance, reinforce values, introduce different cultures and ideas, and educate children to become citizens of the world.
Explains that the v-chip is a direct response to the public's outrage with current levels of sex and violence on television.
Recommends that more programs be created which avoid violence, lower the number of incidents, present negative consequences, and offer nonviolent alternatives. parents magazine suggests parents talk with their children about the violence seen on television.
Argues that violence on television does not "make" a child violent, but it can provide the idea and sanction of violent acts.
Analyzes senator paul simon's view of the v-chip as a "gimmick" and hopes for major results sooner than could be obtained through the number of years it would take for all to own televisions equipped with the chip.
Analyzes how malcolm gladwell believes the v-chip will result in an increase of violence on television. he believes networks will clean up shows aimed for families, but have no restraint when it comes to those programs directed at adults.
Argues that the v-chip, parental involvement, and broadcasting reform could protect america's children from television violence.
Cites diamant, anita, dickson, glen, gladwell, and levine,madeline. "viewinviolence."
Television is a central feature of contemporary American life. American children spend more time watching television than they do in school. In 1989, the average child in the United States spent more time watching television than performing any other activity, except sleeping. In 1989 The Nielson Report on Television commented that children age 2 to 5 viewed approximately 27 hours of television per week. Children 6 to 11 years of age viewed more than 23 hours of television per week, and adolescents between 12 to 17 years of age viewed 22 hours of television per week (Sege 32). During the past several decades, violent programs have been steadily increasing in numbers on television screens. Many believe that there could be the possibility that a direct relationship exists between the violence witnessed on television and the increasingly violent behavior of children and adolescents (Palermo 23). Coming at a time when the homicide rate is
In this essay, the author
Explains that television violence is responsible for the increase in childhood violence. local news shows provide extensive convergence of violent crimes to increase their ratings.
Explains that television is a central feature of contemporary american life. in 1989, the average child in the united states spent more time watching television than they do in school.
Argues that television violence does cause actual violence. the year 1992 set an all-time record for violence in children's shows with an average of 32 violent acts per hour. only on television is there violence without pain.
Narrates how a young gunshot victim surprised his doctors when he was shot in the arm and used that arm to hold onto the truck going 85 miles an hour.
Analyzes how violence in children's television is seen in the cartoon teenage mutant ninja turtles, which causes confusion between fantasy and reality.
Explains that children learn things from their older brothers and sisters, and their television heroes- even bad things. they learn that violence is fun to watch, even in real life.
Opines that television violence promotes violence because it hits children in a suggestible period of their life, when they lack the capacity to reflect and discriminate and integrate what they see in the proper perspective and with objectivity.
Opines that professionals and parents must be aware of all sources of impute for their children, including peers, textbooks, teachers, and relatives. television "talks" to our children daily with complex messages of fear and violence.
Argues that most children who spend a considerable amount of their time viewing television are irresponsible, need constant supervision, and lack social skills. television reduces their attention span, portrays reality far from real life.
Opines that young people must learn at home and in school that violence is not a means of settling differences with others, as they have come to believe from watching television. parents must discourage violence on television for their children's safety.
Opines that there are many non-violent television shows for children, such as barney, sesame street, and bear in the big blue house.
Explains that putting children in front of a television is an easy way to keep them busy, but it is also easy to lose control if the content of what they are watching is not carefully monitored. children learn many things by mimicking.
Cites felson, richard b., "mass media effects on violent behavior." annual review of sociology 22: 96.
addition the average American child will witness over 200,000 acts of violence on television including 16,000 murders before the age of 18 (DuRant, 445). Polls show that three-quarters of the public find television entertainment too violent. When asked to select measures that would reduce violent crime “a lot”, Americans chose restrictions on television violence more often than gun control. Media shows too much violence that is corrupting the minds children, future leaders of our society. In a study of population data for various countries sh...
In this essay, the author
Opines that media adds to the violence that exists today and in the past few decades if not recognized as a possible threat to our society.
Explains that children spend more time learning about life through media than in any other manner. the average american child views 8,000 murders and 100,000 other acts of violence before finishing elementary school.
Explains that the average american child will witness over 200,000 acts of violence on television, including 16,000 murders before the age of 18. polls show that three-quarters of the public find television entertainment too violent.
Compares the level of violence during saturday morning cartoons with that during prime time. media violence is especially damaging to young children because they cannot easily tell the difference.
Opines that media violence is especially damaging to young children because they cannot easily tell the difference between real life and fantasy.
Explains that media violence affects children by increasing aggressiveness and anti-social behavior, making them less sensitive to violence, and increasing their appetite for more violence in entertainment and in real life.
Explains that violent acts in television affect children, as does the music business. warner music bowed to pubic pressure and announced it was severing its 50% stake in interscope records.
Explains that the littleton massacre was a massive killing frenzy at columbine high school and blamed their misery on thoughts derived from lyrics of music.
Opines that parents should be aware of the 'parental advisory - explicit content' label on the front cover of marilyn manson's cd. antichrist superstar promotes a feeling of hatred and anger toward anything dealing with the status quo.
Opines that although there has been less research on the effects of violence in video games and the internet because they are new and changing technologies, there is little reason to doubt that findings from other media studies will apply here too.
Explains that the internet could become a stalking ground for child molesters who have moved from the playground to the internet attracted by the anonymity it offers.
Opines that violence in the media is not negative and can be used as a learning tool.
Explains that if children are exposed to too much violence, they can adapt to those mechanisms and start believing that they are ok. media violence is an ongoing occurrence in regular non-cable television shows and is available to children to preview.
Cites dr. leonard eron's testimony before the senate committee on commerce, science and transportation, subcommittee on communications, june 12, 1995.
Cites robert e. mcafee's testimony before the house energy and commerce committee sub committee on telecommunications and finance.
For the purposes of this paper, I will limit the definition of (mass) media to television, and, subsequently, violent (mass) media to television programs that contain violent acts. By children, I will be referring to people of age 18 and below who live in the U.S., since this group is the focus of the majority of the research data that I have used. I will begin my argument by acknowledging a counter argument to my position. I will then go on to discuss the negative effects of television on children. These effects include an increase in aggressive tendencies and an instilling of the idea that violence will go unpunished. Also included are the concepts of desensitization and stimulus addiction. Finally, I will discuss some potential solutions to the problem of television violence affecting our children.
In this essay, the author
Opines that unjustified violence is wrong, and physical confrontation has consequences. the american psychological association estimates that the average american child or teenager views 10,000 murders, rapes and aggravated assaults per year on television.
Explains that violence in the media affects children differently; this adds complication to finding solutions to the problems of media violence's influence on children.
Cites berkebile, nicole, julie newman, and susan parker. the effects of television on a childs development.
Argues that television violence has been around for decades, and that it is harmful for children.
Explains that desensitization is a common issue of television violence, which manifests in the child's tolerance for and acceptance of violence. stimulus addiction is an effect of exposure to violent content.
Explains how society can diminish the negative influence of media violence on children. parents should monitor what their children are watching on television, but allow them some freedom in what they watch.
Violence in the Media
What makes the Roadrunner and Coyote cartoons so funny and memorable? Of course, the explosions, hits and falls the Coyote takes while in pursuit of the Roadrunner. Pediatrics, a pediatrician read magazine, wrote an article on the influence violence, such as that in cartoons and other forms of media, has on children from ages 2-18 titled “Media Violence.” “Although recent school shootings have prompted politicians and the general public to focus their attention on the influence of media violence, the medical community has been concerned with this issue since the 1950s,” says American Academy of Pediatrics, the author of the article in November of 2001. The article calls for a need for all pediatricians to take a stand on violence in the media and help to make sure their patients are not influenced negatively mentally or physically by violence in the media, using multiple statistics from many publications.
In this essay, the author
Explains that violence in the media makes the roadrunner and coyote cartoons so funny and memorable. pediatrics wrote an article on the influence of media violence on children from ages 2-18 titled "media violence."
Explains that american children between 2 and 18 years of age spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using media, but how does a child have time for all of this media usage between school and homework?
Analyzes how has no proof of how these statistics are true and fails to go into any detail as to why they may be true.
Explains that the american academy of pediatrics publishes the magazine, but no single name is associated with the article. the statistics are taken out of publications, which make them more believable than random authors.
Analyzes how the statistics are chosen to make the reader think with their heart, including all of what makes up the last paragraph of the section titled influence.
Argues that the argument is well fought, but lack of studies or reason behind statistics makes it unbelieveable. it could be backed up with statistics of car accidents and evaluating of caffeine intake.
“Enter the Untouchables and Gun smoke. These violent action packed shows immediately captivated adult viewers. Motivated by the urgent need to try something different, networks stumbled upon the “violence formula”. This formula assumes that the more graphic and gratuitous the violence, the more viewers will watch. It works fairly well until real life becomes comparable to what’s on the screens. Then the novelty wears. And then the violence levels need to be increased,” (Grossman and Degaetano, 1999). Kids start watching violence at a very young age. Everyone says they want to stop the kid’s violence and they take all these actions like making programs and having assemblies, but one of the main sources is television. The shows children are watching daily, show violence all the time. Take cartoons for an example, the average child watches cartoon which always shows violence. The main problem with cartoons is that they show violence but not the real consequences of it. For example, one character kills another character but then in the next episode the same character that died in the last episode comes back to life. So kids never get the true understanding of death. This becomes a problem in schools because when one kid bullies another. The one being bullied might try to do one of the violent acts they learned in the cartoons and kill them not knowing that they won’t come back the next day. In one five-year study of 732 children, "several kinds of aggression, conflicts with parents, fighting and delinquency, were all positively correlated with the total amount of television viewing." (Anderson, 2000). A real life example of this is when the six-year-old boy who had been suspended from school earlier for fightin...
In this essay, the author
Explains the "violence formula", which assumes that the more graphic and gratuitous the violence, the greater the number of viewers.
Explains that there are too many school shootings in america, the most notorious being the columbine high school shooting.
Describes how the swat team evacuated the school before any explosives went off. the last shots heard were at twelve thirty p.m. when eric and dylan had taken their own lives.
Describes how littleton was affected by the frightening event that happened that tuesday. the next few months would bring painful grief, self-recrimination, and blame that is a natural process of coming to terms with such an event.
Explains that researchers have been researching ways to reduce the violence using guns, such as an electronic lock in the grip, and reducing the number of bullets it can hold.
Explains the positives of technology in schools, such as educating students, and putting stop-the-violence commercials out there.
Explains that technology plays a major role in school violence. eron and rowell huesmann found that children who watched television violence at the age of eight were consistently more likely to commit violent crimes or engage in child or spouse abuse at thirty.
Explains that the best available statistics show an up tick in school violence this year, which some say is an indication that all those locker searches and school crisis plans are no match for a kid with guns.
Reports garsten, e., a 19-year-old linked to michigan school shooting charged with manslaughter.
Opines that columbine is likely to happen again after the worst school shooting incident in u.s. history.
Explains klonsky, m., "how smaller schools prevent school violence." educational leadership, v59, p65-69.
Explains garza, k., "school security moves into the digital age." the journal vol. 30 issue 5, p44.
Explains that moore, m., and ebsco host deadly lessons: understanding lethal school violence.
It is not the amount of television viewed that has created this problem, but rather it is the content of North American television that has spiraled out of control and that has warped the minds of countless children. The correlation between aggressive behavior and television viewing is accounted for by the violent content of modern television shows. Estimates have indicated that by the time a child reaches the age of twelve, s/he will have witnessed as many as 12, 000 violent deaths on television, and that this can lead to “heightened aggression in the short term” (Childley 38). We live in an era where Hollywood is applauded for its creativity and originality when it comes to new ways to murder characters. Consequently, it is no wonder that youth violence is up 140% in Canada sin...
In this essay, the author
Analyzes the correlation between aggressive behavior and television viewing and the recent shooting of a six-year-old girl in flint, michigan.
Explains that the media, namely television, has an impact on young people exhibiting violent behavior, but the home environment must also be considered a primary factor in promoting hostility.
Explains that the first explanation of violent conduct in youths can be traced back to the ideals that are projected upon children by their parents.
Opines that drug-related gang violence is a reality that has become an epidemic.
Explains that in the u.s., the accessibility to firearms is an issue of utmost importance. gun violence is the number two killer of youths aged 15 to 24.
Argues that the lenient sentencing of juvenile offenders has failed to deter the youth of north america from committing crimes.
Concludes that youth violence in north america is a multi-faceted issue and its causes can be approached from several angles.
Argues that the causes of youth violence must be determined and analyzed to determine which ones can be affected by change.
Analyzes the impact of family relations on youth violence, citing wickes and levesque.
States that narcotics and alcohol interfere with the function of the brain and central nervous system, tampering with a youth's personality and causing violent outbursts.
The impact of television violence on youth behavior has been an issue for many years. Television stations and their executives tend to deny television's contribution to youth violence. In the following paragraphs, I will use various examples to demonstrate the impact television has had on youth violence. This will be accomplished by: discussing the problems associated with television viewing, identifying violence on television, portraying the effects of television violence on younger people, and revealing ways to reduce violence on television. This paper explores these topics by using multiple statistics, by incorporating the views of several public officials and authors, and through my own views as well.
In this essay, the author
Explains that television was first introduced at the world's fair in 1939. e. b. white foresaw the problems associated with television when it first arrived, but he figured television would have such an impact on american society.
Explains that huston-stein and her colleagues assessed the effects of viewing violent or pro-social (nonviolent) television programming.
Explains leonard eron's 1963 study on the development of aggression in eight-year-olds in a small upstate new york town.
Opines that the fcc's ruling has helped station operators realize the problem and take steps to improve kids' programming.
Analyzes how the statistics used in the above paragraphs, as well as the views of former surgeon general joycelyn elders several authors, have contributed to the belief that television affects youth violence.
Explains the american academy of child & adolescent psychiatry.
Opines that parents can protect their children from sex and violence in the media by raising pg kids in an x-rated society.
Analyzes how the impact of television violence on youth behavior has been an issue for many years.
Analyzes how television violence has increased in the last 25 years, citing william goodwin, john murray and elaine landau.
Explains that the eron study provides a direct correlation between television viewing and violence. parents can limit television watching by reducing the number of hours children are allowed to watch.
Explains margolis, jeffrey a. teen crime wave: a growing problem. issues in focus series.
There is endless controversy today concerning society being highly affected by media programs displaying violence. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) reports that violence in the media has increased since 1980 and continues to increase. Thousands of studies have pointed to a relationship between media violence and real life crime. Years of research show that exposu...
In this essay, the author
Analyzes the role of television on childhood violence in the world. television is an outlet for violence that often goes unnoticed. children are hypnotized by the action that takes place in it.
Explains that violence is the use of one's powers to inflict mental or physical injury upon another. television is definitely a major source of violent behavior. media has an innate power to engage and affect people worldwide.
Explains that research proves that aggression and television viewing go hand in hand. the truth about television violence and children has been shown.
States that the national association for the education of young children (naeyc) reports that violence in the media has increased since 1980 and continues to increase.
Explains that children like the violence in television because it is more exciting and enthralling than violence that is normally viewed on the streets.
Explains that children who spend more time watching violent tv programming are rated more poorly by their teachers and peers, and have few problem solving skills.
Explains that children who watched violent television were more likely to agree that it's okay to hit someone if you're mad at them for a good reason. problems can be solved passively through discussion and authority.
Explains that television violence can disrupt a child's learning and thinking ability which will cause life long problems.
Argues that there are measures that should be taken to prevent the children from ever being exposed to television violence.
Concludes that violence on television is clearly influencing our children in negative ways. we can ignore the issues and let the media control the future of our world, yet the concences are deadly.
Cites ciony c. gonzales' "taking films seriously." life today, january 1984, pp. 9; fr. james, "media and values."