Peer Training to Facilitate Social Interaction for Elementary Students with Autism and Their Peers. Exceptional Children, 68 (2), 173-187. Marks, S. et. al. (2003).
Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(5), 43-48. Nikopolus, C. K., & Nikopoulou-Smyrni, P. (2008). Teaching Complex Social Skills to Children Wtih Autism; Advances of Video Modeling. Journal Of Early & Intensive Behavior Intervention, 5, 30-43. Ogilvie, C. R. (2011).
This refers to the guidelines and principles basing on which the autistic children provide education with a special emphasis on behaviorism. Classical Behaviorism includes that of learning individuals required display properly concept, in a manner sufficient, and providing reinforcers. In other word, Scientists have mentioned that people with autism could learn better if there is a proper and repeated presentation of well organized demand with incentives when an intended behavior becomes apparent (Education and autism, n.d.). Under ABA, a psychotherapist could offer Discrete Trial Training that involves an action oriented request, reaction from the autism affected children and a therapist’s reaction. Counseling when offered through this method plays a vital role in positively supporting the behavior shaping and instructing novel behaviors.
Empirically Supported Intervention Practices For Autism Spectrum Disorders in School and Community Settings: Issues and Practices. Handbook of Postive Behavior Support. 149-176. Koegel, R. L., Koegel, L. K., Vernon, W. T. (2009). Improving Social Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Reinforcers with Embedded Social Interactions.
(2012, October 26). Retrieved from http://www.autismspeaks.org/about-us/press- releases/early-intervention-improves-social-skills-brain-activity-autism Fessenden, M. (2012, July 17). Early Intervention Could Help Autistic Children Learn to Speak. Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/early-intervention-autistic- children/ Smith, T. (1999). Outcome of Early Intervention for Children With Autism.
(Barlow & Durand, 2012). The psychosocial approach is to improve children performance in school, minimizing crude behavior and their social relationship. Behavioral programme was introduced to assist both parents and children with ADHD. The purpose of the programme was to boast the attention span of children, build a better social relationship and to improve academic performance. This behavioral training has three formats; Behavioral Parent Training are classified as Parent training intervention, Teacher Training and child training interventions.
I have gathered articles that show the implementing of early intervention programs and RTI models to enhance children that show signs of an early learning disability. The articles all show how these programs can help students progress in academics as well as behavior areas in the classroom. In the article titled Responsiveness to Intervention: Evidence and implications for learning Disability, this article also focused on responsiveness to intervention. The article speaks on the functions and how to properly set up , analyze data and instruct RTI’s. From 1977 to 1994 children with learning disabilities increased from 3.7 million to 5.3 million (Hanushek, Kain & Rivikin, 2001, p.7).
The use of technology to support the Social Story approach may have several benefits including the use of visual information to improve meaning as many children with autism are visual learners Grandin, Dawe (2006). This essay will discuss the use of modern multimedia programs to teach language, emotion recognition, or social skills to individuals with ASD. Draws on (Williams, Wright, Callaghan, & Coughlan, 2002) Study that suggests that computerized instructional programs may be highly motivating and effective for enhancing receptive vocabulary acquisition for children with ASD. Furthermore, consider the use of ICT can cause stress and isolation with ASD children, and when used as an integrating component based on individual requirements social stories and ICT can improve literacy in children with ASD. Language may be delayed or impaired in individuals with ASD (APA, 2000).
Mazurik-Charles, R., & Stefanou, C. (2010). Using Paraprofessionals to Teach Social Skills to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the General Education Classroom. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 37(2), 161-169. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Stokes, M., Newton, N., & Kaur, A.
These visual supports help students access aspects of general education that they may otherwise have difficulty accessing. There have been many studies proving the efficacy of visual supports in special education; one of the most prominent visual support systems is picture exchange communication, or PECS. Several studies on the effectiveness of PECS will be reviewed. Case One In a study by Schmit, Alper, and Raschke (2000), the effects of using a photographic cueing system during routine school transitions with a child who has autism were evaluated. The use of a pictorial visual support system indicated to the student that an activity change was about to occur.